SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION
Washington, D.C. 20549
☒ ANNUAL REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934
For the fiscal year ended December 31, 2022
☐ TRANSITION REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934
For the transition period from to
Commission File Number: 001-40323
Recursion Pharmaceuticals, Inc.
(Exact name of registrant as specified in its charter)
(State or other jurisdiction of incorporation or organization)______________________ (I.R.S. Employer Identification No.)
41 S Rio Grande Street
Salt Lake City, UT 84101
(Address of principal executive offices) (Zip code)
(385) 269 - 0203
(Registrant’s telephone number, including area code)
Securities registered pursuant to Section 12(b) of the Act:
|Title of each class||Trading symbol(s)||Name of each exchange on which registered|
|Class A Common Stock, par value $0.00001||RXRX|
Nasdaq Global Select Market
Securities registered pursuant to section 12(g) of the Act: None
(Title of class)
Indicate by check mark if the registrant is a well-known seasoned issuer, as defined in Rule 405 of the Securities Act.
Yes x No o
Indicate by check mark if the registrant is not required to file reports pursuant to Section 13 or Section 15(d) of the Act.
Yes o No x
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant (1) has filed all reports required to be filed by Section 13 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to file such reports), and (2) has been subject to such filing requirements for the past 90 days.
Yes x No ☐
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant has submitted electronically every Interactive Data File required to be submitted pursuant to Rule 405 of Regulation S-T (§232.405 of this chapter) during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to submit such files).
Yes x No ☐
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a large accelerated filer, an accelerated filer, a non-accelerated filer, a smaller reporting company, or an emerging growth company. See the definitions of “large accelerated filer,” “accelerated filer,” “smaller reporting company,” and "emerging growth company" in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act.
|Large accelerated filer||x||Non-accelerated filer||☐|
|Accelerated filer||☐||Smaller reporting company||☐|
|Emerging growth company||☐|
If an emerging growth company, indicate by check mark if the registrant has elected not to use the extended transition period for complying with any new or revised financial accounting standards provided pursuant to Section 13(a) of the Exchange Act. ☐
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant has filed a report on and attestation to its management’s assessment of the effectiveness of its internal control over financial reporting under Section 404(b) of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act (15 U.S.C. 7262(b)) by the registered public accounting firm that prepared or issued its audit report. ☒
If securities are registered pursuant to Section 12(b) of the Act, indicate by check mark whether the financial statements of the registrant included in the filing reflect the correction of an error to previously issued financial statements. ☐
Indicate by check mark whether any of those error corrections are restatements that required a recovery analysis of incentive-based compensation received by any of the registrant’s executive officers during the relevant recovery period pursuant to §240.10D-1(b). ☐
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a shell company (as defined in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act). Yes ☐ No ☒
The aggregate market value of the 115,639,551 shares of Class A common voting stock held by non-affiliates of the Registrant, computed by reference to the closing price as reported on the Nasdaq Stock Exchange, as of the last business day of the registrant’s most recently completed second fiscal quarter (June 30, 2022) was $941.3 million.
As of January 31, 2023, there were 183,443,480 and 7,789,209 of the registrant’s Class A and B common stock, par value $0.00001 per share, outstanding, respectively.
DOCUMENTS INCORPORATED BY REFERENCE
Portions of the definitive proxy statement for use in connection with the registrant’s 2023 Annual Meeting of Stockholders to be filed hereafter are incorporated by reference into Part III of this report.
A Letter from Our
Co-Founder and CEO
I am filled with a sense of gratitude for your continued support of Recursion and our mission to Decode Biology to Radically Improve Lives. 2022 was a year of great progress, and I am honored to share our successes and opportunities with you looking back, as well as to lay out our plan going forward.
With the world facing uncertainty, not only as a result of economic headwinds and geopolitical tensions, but also from the broad implications resulting from advances in technology making waves across the tech industry and threatening to change the way many people work, we are proud to be a company that is focused on using cutting-edge technology to find solutions to some of the most complex and pressing problems in biotechnology. Our mission is a unifying force for good, a rallying call for our team reminding us of our purpose and driving us forward through times of uncertainty.
2022 was, no doubt, an uncertain time for many, and especially for growth stage biotechnology companies. At Recursion, we adapted quickly to changing conditions by pulling back on growth and hiring plans in January and updating our tactics to increase our relative focus on near and mid-term value drivers without changing our long-term strategy to seize what we continue to see is an inevitable opportunity to leverage technology to fundamentally alter the efficiency and impact of the biopharma industry.
Specific key examples of our delivery in 2022 include:
•We initiated 5 clinical trials, including three Phase 2 programs, setting the stage for readouts later this year, into 2024, and beyond.
•We delivered against the core foundational data pillars of our Roche/Genentech collaboration in neuroscience and an indication in gastrointestinal oncology while advancing multiple fibrosis programs simultaneously with our partners at Bayer. This work sets the stage for potential advancement of programs or map-building milestones and data-usage options that underlie the strength of our approach.
•We continued to build-out the Recursion OS, which we believe is among the most comprehensive full-stack technology solutions in the biopharma industry spanning target discovery through digital chemistry, lead optimization, translation and IND-enabling work. The most significant advances include the acceleration of our scaled transcriptomic technologies, industry-leading build-out of hiPSC-derived cell production, and acceleration of our efforts to incorporate additional in-house chemistry capabilities at Recursion.
•We continued operating from a position of strength through our expanded laboratory facilities, improved compliance processes fit for a company of our scale, our high-ratings after our first annual ESG report, and our ability to raise significant funds from long-term oriented investors in our $150M PIPE offering in October.
All of these achievements and many more have been possible because of the exceptional team we have at Recursion. I am proud to say that we have attracted some of the brightest minds from the technology and biotechnology industries. In 2022, we codified Recursion’s Founding Principles as a way to frame how Recursion approaches problems from a first-principles perspective, solidify our culture that is at the interface of technology and biotechnology, and drive maximal impact and value. We believe that investing in our team is one of the most important things we can do to ensure our long-term success, and we will continue to do so in the years ahead.
INITIATED 5 CLINICAL TRIALS IN 2022
and planning a 6th clinical trial to initiate
WE BELIEVE THAT WE HAVE BUILT ONE OF THE LARGEST PROPRIETARY BIOLOGICAL AND CHEMICAL DATASETS
>21 petabytes of data
>3 trillion searchable relationships
Despite the economic uncertainties of 2022, we are operating from a leading position among TechBio companies. With roughly $550M of cash and equivalents at the end of 2022, some of the largest partnerships, one of the broadest and most advanced clinical pipelines, and one of the most diverse and integrated technology stacks, we are well positioned to take advantage of opportunities as they arise. While we will remain prudent stewards of capital, we will not be afraid to take advantage of the creative destruction in the private and public stage biopharma space including prudent consolidation where and when it fits with our strategy.
Perhaps one of the biggest shifts we noticed in 2022 was the continued acceleration of people’s appreciation of the potential for the TechBio space. From large pharmaceutical companies to large technology companies, it feels to us like there is a growing sense of inevitability among leaders at these companies that technology will indeed create step-function shifts in the healthcare industry; an opinion that has not been widely accepted until recently. Seeing the nexus of interest between both biopharma industry players and technology players in the space is creating an exciting recipe for transformational partnerships and collaborations.
At Recursion, our Roche/Genentech deal, signed in late 2021, set a precedent that may have been underappreciated at the time for selling access to portions of our proprietary dataset. And our recent dataset release of RxRx3, the largest public dataset of its kind ever shared, has created significant interest in our data. Looking forward into 2023, we see our proprietary dataset of over 21 petabytes as a unique value driver not only for our own discovery programs and those of our close partners, but perhaps as a harbinger of a new market of extraordinarily high-quality biological and chemical data built fit-for-the purpose of training machine learning and AI algorithms.
In closing, I want to express my sincere gratitude for your continued support of Recursion. We are incredibly proud of what we have accomplished together and remain committed to delivering value to our shareholders, our team, and the patients we aim to serve. We could not be more excited about the long-term future of our space and how our team is prepared to continue building and executing against this grand opportunity. If we can achieve even a portion of our ambitious mission, we have the opportunity to create massive positive impact in the world and build an incredible business to drive it. We won’t let up in our work to achieve that outcome.
Chris Gibson, Ph.D.
Co-Founder and Chief Executive Officer
RELEASED THE RXRX3 DATASET AND MOLREC APPLICATION
framing how data itself can be a unique value driver
"We are proud to be a company that is focused on using cutting-edge technology to find solutions to some of the most complex and pressing problems in biotechnology. We are operating from a leading position among TechBio companies."
TABLE OF CONTENTS
RISK FACTOR SUMMARY
Below is a summary of the principal factors that make an investment in the common stock of Recursion Pharmaceuticals, Inc. (Recursion, the Company, we, us, or our) risky or speculative. This summary does not address all of the risks we face. Additional discussion of the risks summarized below, and other risks that we face, can be found in the section titled “Item 1A. Risk Factors” in this Annual Report on Form 10-K.
•We are a clinical-stage biotechnology company with a limited operating history. We have no products approved for commercial sale and have not generated any revenue from product sales.
•Our drug candidates are in preclinical or clinical development, which are lengthy and expensive processes with uncertain outcomes and the potential for substantial delays.
•We have incurred significant operating losses since our inception, we expect to incur substantial and increasing operating losses for the foreseeable future, and we may not be able to achieve or maintain profitability.
•Our mission is broad and expensive to achieve and we will need to raise substantial additional funding, which may not be available on commercially reasonable terms or at all.
•We expect to finance our cash needs for the foreseeable future potentially through a combination of private and public equity offerings and debt financings, as well as strategic collaborations. If we are unable to raise capital when needed, we would be forced to delay, reduce, or eliminate at least some of our product development programs and other activities, and to possibly cease operations.
•Raising additional capital entails risks, including that it may adversely affect the rights, or dilute the holdings, of our existing stockholders; increase our fixed payment obligations; require us to relinquish rights to our technologies or drug candidates; and/or divert management’s attention from our core business.
•If we are unable to establish additional strategic collaborations on commercially reasonable terms or at all, or if current or future collaborations are not successful, we may have to alter our drug development plans.
•We or our current and future collaborators may never successfully develop and commercialize drug candidates, or the market for approved drug candidates may be less than anticipated, which in either case would materially and adversely affect our financial results and our ability to continue our business operations.
•Our approach to drug discovery is unique and may not lead to successful drug products for various reasons, including potential challenges identifying mechanisms of action for our candidates.
•Although we intend to explore other therapeutic opportunities in addition to the drug candidates we are currently developing, we may fail to identify viable new candidates or we may need to prioritize candidates and, as a result, we may fail to capitalize on profitable market opportunities.
•We may experience delays in initiating and completing clinical trials, including due to difficulties in enrolling patients or maintaining compliance with trial protocols, or our trials may produce inconclusive or negative results.
•If we are unable to obtain or there are delays in obtaining regulatory approvals for our drug candidates in the U.S. or other jurisdictions, or if approval is subject to limitations, we will be unable to commercialize, or delayed or limited in commercializing, the products in that jurisdiction and our ability to generate revenue may be materially impaired.
•Our quarterly and annual operating results may fluctuate significantly due to a variety of factors, a number of which are outside our control or may be difficult to predict, which could cause our stock price to fluctuate or decline.
•If we are not able to develop new solutions and enhancements to our drug discovery platform that keep pace with technological developments, or if we experience breaches or malfunctions affecting our platform, our ability to identify and validate viable drug candidates would be adversely impacted.
•Third parties that provide supplies or equipment, or that manufacture our drug products or drug substances, may not provide sufficient quantities at an acceptable cost or may otherwise fail to perform.
•We or third parties on which we depend may experience system failures, cyber-attacks, and other disruptions to information technology or cloud-based infrastructure, which could harm our business and subject us to liability for disclosure of confidential information.
•Force majeure events, such as the COVID-19 pandemic, a natural disaster, global political instability, or warfare, could materially disrupt our business and the development of our drug candidates.
•If we are unable to adequately protect and enforce our intellectual property rights, including obtaining and maintaining patent protection for our key technology and products that is sufficiently broad, our competitors
could develop and commercialize technology and products similar or identical to ours and our ability to successfully commercialize our technology and products may be impaired.
•If we are unable to protect the confidentiality of our trade secrets and know-how, our business and competitive position may be harmed.
•If we fail to comply with our obligations in the agreements under which we collaborate with and/or license intellectual property rights from third parties, or otherwise experience disruptions to our business relationships with our partners, we could lose rights that are important to our business.
•We face substantial competition, which may result in others discovering, developing, or commercializing competing products before we do.
•If we are unable to attract and retain key executives, experienced scientists, and other qualified personnel, our ability to discover and develop drug candidates and pursue our growth strategy could be impaired.
•We are subject to comprehensive statutory and regulatory requirements, noncompliance with which may delay or prevent our ability to market our products or result in fines or other liabilities.
Cautionary Note Regarding Forward-Looking Statements
This Annual Report on Form 10-K contains “forward-looking statements” about us and our industry within the meaning of Section 27A of the Securities Act of 1933, as amended, and Section 21E of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended. All statements other than statements of historical facts are forward-looking statements. In some cases, you can identify forward-looking statements by terms such as “may,” “will,” “should,” “would,” “expect,” “plan,” “anticipate,” “could,” “intend,” “target,” “project,” “contemplate,” “believe,” “estimate,” “predict,” “potential,” or “continue” or the negative of these terms or other similar expressions. Forward-looking statements contained in this report may include without limitation those regarding:
•our research and development programs
•the initiation, timing, progress, results, and cost of our current and future preclinical and clinical studies, including statements regarding the design of, and the timing of initiation and completion of, studies and related preparatory work, as well as the period during which the results of the studies will become available;
•the ability of our clinical trials to demonstrate the safety and efficacy of our drug candidates, and other positive results;
•the ability and willingness of our collaborators to continue research and development activities relating to our development candidates and investigational medicines;
•future agreements with third parties in connection with the commercialization of our investigational medicines and any other approved product;
•the timing, scope, and likelihood of regulatory filings and approvals, including the timing of Investigational New Drug applications and final approval by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration, or FDA, of our current drug candidates and any other future drug candidates, as well as our ability to maintain any such approvals;
•the timing, scope, or likelihood of foreign regulatory filings and approvals, including our ability to maintain any such approvals;
•the size of the potential market opportunity for our drug candidates, including our estimates of the number of patients who suffer from the diseases we are targeting;
•our ability to identify viable new drug candidates for clinical development and the rate at which we expect to identify such candidates, whether through an inferential approach or otherwise;
•our expectation that the assets that will drive the most value for us are those that we will identify in the future using our datasets and tools;
•our ability to develop and advance our current drug candidates and programs into, and successfully complete, clinical studies;
•our ability to reduce the time or cost or increase the likelihood of success of our research and development relative to the traditional drug discovery paradigm;
•our ability to improve, and the rate of improvement in, our infrastructure, datasets, biology, technology tools, and drug discovery platform, and our ability to realize benefits from such improvements;
•our expectations related to the performance and benefits of our BioHive-1 supercomputer;
•our ability to realize a return on our investment of resources and cash in our drug discovery collaborations;
•our ability to scale like a technology company and to add more programs to our pipeline each year;
•our ability to successfully compete in a highly competitive market;
•our manufacturing, commercialization, and marketing capabilities and strategies;
•our plans relating to commercializing our drug candidates, if approved, including the geographic areas of focus and sales strategy;
•our expectations regarding the approval and use of our drug candidates in combination with other drugs;
•the rate and degree of market acceptance and clinical utility of our current drug candidates, if approved, and other drug candidates we may develop;
•our competitive position and the success of competing approaches that are or may become available;
•our estimates of the number of patients that we will enroll in our clinical trials and the timing of their enrollment;
•the beneficial characteristics, safety, efficacy, and therapeutic effects of our drug candidates;
•our plans for further development of our drug candidates, including additional indications we may pursue;
•our ability to adequately protect and enforce our intellectual property and proprietary technology, including the scope of protection we are able to establish and maintain for intellectual property rights covering our current drug candidates and other drug candidates we may develop, receipt of patent protection, the extensions of existing patent terms where available, the validity of intellectual property rights held by third parties, the protection of our trade secrets, and our ability not to infringe, misappropriate or otherwise violate any third-party intellectual property rights;
•the impact of any intellectual property disputes and our ability to defend against claims of infringement, misappropriation, or other violations of intellectual property rights;
•our ability to keep pace with new technological developments;
•our ability to utilize third-party open source software and cloud-based infrastructure, on which we are dependent;
•the adequacy of our insurance policies and the scope of their coverage;
•the potential impact of a pandemic, epidemic, or outbreak of an infectious disease, such as COVID-19, or natural disaster, global political instability, or warfare, and the effect of such outbreak or natural disaster, global political instability, or warfare on our business and financial results;
•our ability to maintain our technical operations infrastructure to avoid errors, delays, or cybersecurity breaches;
•our continued reliance on third parties to conduct additional clinical trials of our drug candidates, and for the manufacture of our drug candidates for preclinical studies and clinical trials;
•our ability to obtain, and negotiate favorable terms of, any collaboration, licensing or other arrangements that may be necessary or desirable to research, develop, manufacture, or commercialize our platform and drug candidates;
•the pricing and reimbursement of our current drug candidates and other drug candidates we may develop, if approved;
•our estimates regarding expenses, future revenue, capital requirements, and need for additional financing;
•our financial performance;
•the period over which we estimate our existing cash and cash equivalents will be sufficient to fund our future operating expenses and capital expenditure requirements;
•our ability to raise substantial additional funding;
•the impact of current and future laws and regulations, and our ability to comply with all regulations that we are, or may become, subject to;
•the need to hire additional personnel and our ability to attract and retain such personnel;
•the impact of any current or future litigation, which may arise during the ordinary course of business and be costly to defend;
•our expectations regarding the period during which we will qualify as an emerging growth company under the JOBS Act;
•our anticipated use of our existing resources and the net proceeds from our initial public offering; and
•other risks and uncertainties, including those listed in the section titled “Risk Factors.”
We have based these forward-looking statements largely on our current expectations and projections about our business, the industry in which we operate, and financial trends that we believe may affect our business, financial condition, results of operations, and prospects. These forward-looking statements are not guarantees of future performance or development. These statements speak only as of the date of this report and are subject to a number of risks, uncertainties and assumptions described in the section titled “Risk Factors” and elsewhere in this report. Because forward-looking statements are inherently subject to risks and uncertainties, some of which cannot be predicted or quantified, you should not rely on these forward-looking statements as predictions of future events. The events and circumstances reflected in our forward-looking statements may not be achieved or occur and actual results could differ materially from those projected in the forward-looking statements. Except as required by applicable law, we undertake no obligation to update or revise any forward-looking statements contained herein, whether as a result of any new information, future events, or otherwise.
In addition, statements that “we believe” and similar statements reflect our beliefs and opinions on the relevant subject. These statements are based upon information available to us as of the date of this report. While we believe such information forms a reasonable basis for such statements, the information may be limited or incomplete, and our statements should not be read to indicate that we have conducted an exhaustive inquiry into, or review of, all potentially available relevant information. These statements are inherently uncertain and you are cautioned not to unduly rely upon them.
Item 1. Business.
Recursion is a clinical stage TechBio company leading this burgeoning space by decoding biology to industrialize drug discovery. Central to our mission is the Recursion Operating System (OS), a platform built across diverse technologies that enables us to map and navigate trillions of biological and chemical relationships within the Recursion Data Universe, one of the world’s largest proprietary biological and chemical datasets. We frame this integration of the physical and digital components as iterative loops of atoms and bits. Scaled ‘wet-lab’ biology and chemistry data built in-house (atoms) are organized into virtuous cycles with ‘dry-lab’ computational tools (bits) to rapidly translate in silico hypotheses into validated insights and novel chemistry. Our focus on mapping and navigating the complexities of biology and chemistry beyond the published literature and in a target-agnostic way differentiates us from other companies in our space and leads us to confront a fundamental cause of failure for the majority of clinical-stage programs - the wrong target is chosen due to an incomplete and reductionist view of biology. Our balanced team of life scientists and computational and technical experts creates an environment where empirical data, statistical rigor and creative thinking are brought to bear on our decisions.
We leverage our Recursion OS to enable three key value drivers:
1.An expansive pipeline of internally-developed clinical and preclinical programs focused on genetically-driven rare diseases and oncology with significant unmet need and market opportunities in some cases potentially in excess of $1 billion in annual sales
2.Transformational partnerships with leading biopharma companies to map and navigate intractable areas of biology, identify novel targets and develop potential new medicines that are further developed in resource-heavy clinical trials overseen by our partners
3.Development of one of the largest fit-for-purpose proprietary biological and chemical datasets in the world at a time when advances in AI paired with the right training data are creating disruptive value.
Key Achievements in 2022
•Initiated five clinical trials including Phase 2 trials in Cerebral Cavernous Malformation (CCM) and Familial Adenomatous Polyposis (FAP), a Phase 2/3 trial in NF2-mutated meningiomas and Phase 1 healthy volunteer trials for REC-4881 and REC-3964
•Received Fast Track Designation from the US FDA and Orphan Drug Designation from the European Commission for REC-4881 for the potential treatment of FAP
•Leveraged our map of biology and chemistry to expand the scope of REC-4881 beyond FAP with plans for a fifth clinical program (Phase 1b/2) being readied to explore the molecule in AXIN1 or APC mutant solid tumors
•Focused our discovery and preclinical pipelines in oncology, with significant advances made in our Target Alpha checkpoint sensitization program and our RBM39 program in homologous recombination proficient ovarian cancer (formerly named Target Gamma) which are now both nearing IND-enabling studies
•Initiated four new programs (for eight total programs initiated to date) in the space of fibrosis with our partners at Bayer and advanced multiple programs towards value inflection points
•Made significant progress against both the gastrointestinal-oncology and neuroscience portions of our collaboration with Roche and Genentech, including cell type evaluation and significant cell scale up in support of initial Phenomap-building efforts which remain on track
Recursion OS Building
•Industrialized transcriptomics-based validation, including using transcriptomics data to advance programs for one of our partners (at the end of 2022, we had sequenced over 250,000 individual transcriptome samples)
•Industrialized digital tolerability studies using our InVivomics technology to enable better, faster candidate selection
•Industrialized stem cell production (produced over 500 billion neural hiPSC-derived cells in 2022) to enable neurology research at exceptional levels of quality and simultaneously making Recursion one of the largest producers of neural hiPSC-derived cells on earth in the span of a single year
•Advanced several in-house internal digital chemistry applications (two of which we have published on: MolE and Multi-Objective GFlowNets)1
•Closed a significant PIPE offering from a cohort of supportive, long-term investors including both new and existing shareholders (Kinnevik, Baillie-Gifford, Mubadala, Laurion, Platinum, Invus)
•Demonstrated commitment to ethical business practices as demonstrated in our inaugural ESG report
•Expanded our laboratory facilities to enable novel technology, partnerships and pipeline
•Evolved as a public company by preparing for SOX and SOC2 compliance
Vision, Mission, People and Culture
Human biology is a highly complex system for which human intelligence alone is insufficient to fully understand. While hundreds of thousands of incredible scientists around the world dedicate themselves to expanding our understanding each day, the extraordinarily high failure rates of human-generated hypotheses in our industry suggest to us that we still understand just a small percentage of biology, chemistry and the interactions between the two.
Simultaneously, our world is currently transiting its next industrial revolution based on extraordinary progress in scaled computation, machine learning (ML) and artificial intelligence (AI). While progress in this field has been steady for decades, the exponential growth trajectory is becoming more apparent to many members of modern society through accessible applications like ChatGPT. While progress is being made using sophisticated computation in virtually every industry, the complexity of biology and the highly regulated nature of the biopharma industry has resulted in a delay in the fruits of technology in our space. However, this means we are in a position to learn from the lessons of the application to technology to many other fields. One of the primary lessons learned across numerous industries is that computational sophistication alone is rarely sufficient to create disruptive change. It is when computational sophistication is paired with the right data, typically in an iterative process of ongoing learning, prediction and refinement, where outsized change is created.
1 Recursion shared preprints at the AI for Accelerated Materials Design workshop and Learning Meaningful Representations of Life workshop: Multi-Objective GFlowNets (https://arxiv.org/pdf/2211.02657.pdf); MolE: A Molecular Foundation Model for Drug Discovery (https://arxiv.org/abs/2210.12765)
Figure 1. Machine learning native companies across multiple industries create iterative loops of profiling, analysis and inference2. A common theme in the successful application of ML / AI to many industries is the creation of a virtuous loop of learning and iteration. First, real systems (atoms) are profiled in order to create digital representations (bits) which can be analyzed by ML and AI to infer the rules, shapes or values of the real system. For example, digitizing the physical state of the planet using satellite imaging traffic flow, weather and other real-world data allows one to model the real world and predict optimal, real-time and flexible navigation routes.
Recursion was founded in 2013 with a vision to capitalize on the convergence of advancements in computation and machine learning to address the decreasing efficiency of drug discovery and development. We believe that this opportunity represents one of the most positively impactful applications of ML and AI. Our vision is to leverage technology to map and navigate biology and chemistry to discover and develop more, better medicines faster. We believe that neither advanced computational approaches, massive datasets, nor human intelligence alone can fundamentally shift the efficiency curve of drug discovery and development; instead, we believe that those companies that augment their teams with sophisticated computational tools leveraging hard-to-replicate proprietary datasets will have a significant advantage. We believe we are among the companies leading this burgeoning new sector of the biopharma industry that we call TechBio. Our success, and the success of this new sector generally, has the promise to drive better new medicines to patients at higher scale and lower prices. We are working hard to not only lead this space, but define it.
2 Adapted from Rutgers, V and Sniderman, B. (Oct 2018) Around the physical-digital-physical loop - A current look at Industry 4.0 capabilities. Deloitte Insights.
Figure 2. Eroom’s Law observes that while technology advancements have made many processes faster and less expensive over the years, drug discovery is becoming slower and more expensive.3,4 Recursion was created to take advantage of the discontinuity between these fields and harness the power of accelerating technological innovations to improve the efficiency of drug discovery and development.
Our mission at Recursion, Decoding Biology to Radically Improve Lives, flows naturally from our vision. We interpret our mission expansively and believe it to be a durable direction and source of inspiration for our team. While we are best-known for industrializing phenomics (data based on images of cellular structures), we do not feel constrained by that foundation and will use any technology or combination of technologies we see fit to decode biology. Success in decoding biology implies our ability to predict ways to navigate it. The ability to predictably navigate biology may enable us to build a massive pipeline of medicines, either by ourselves, with partners or both. As part of that work, we seek not only to radically improve the lives of patients who could benefit from the medicines we help to deliver, but the lives of those who care for those patients, the lives of our employees and their families, as well as the communities in which we operate our company.
3 Adapted from Scannell, J et al (2012). Diagnosing the decline in pharmaceutical R&D efficiency. Nat Rev Drug Discov, 11, 191-200.
4 Adapted from Roser, M et al. (2013). Technological Change. OurWorldInData.org.
Figure 3: Recursion’s Founding Principles and Values support our ambitious mission. Together, these elements shape Recursion’s culture by guiding our people to high-impact decision-making and behaviors.
Our culture at Recursion is designed with intention to fuel our mission. We believe culture drives delivery. Essential to decoding biology in our context, is a mindset deeply committed to achieving impact at unprecedented scale through pioneering new industrialized approaches. We call it the Recursion Mindset. To embrace this mindset and our ambition, our people must deeply learn what will make them impactful in our context while questioning what made them successful in prior contexts. Sometimes this requires unlearning. Sometimes this requires a professional metamorphosis. For everyone it requires change. To decode biology we intentionally source for an incredible breadth of fields from multiple industries and for all of them Recursion is a new kind of company. The guideposts for teaching our people to successfully transition to TechBio and deliver our mission are our Founding Principles and Values. They are the essential shape of our culture. The Founding Principles direct us in making scientific and technical decisions that further our mission. The Values define the day-to-day behaviors and mindsets that further our mission. Together, along with the brilliance, humility and diversity of our people, our culture comes to life. Together, they are the compass that point our people towards decoding biology.
Figure 4. Recursion’s team requires operating at the interface of many diverse fields. Building a TechBio company requires fluency in operating at the interface of many disciplines and fields not previously attuned to working as closely in traditional BioPharma.
Business Strategy and Value Drivers
While most small to medium-sized biopharma companies are focused on a narrow slice of biology or therapeutic area, where they believe they have an advantage or insight based on the summed experience of their team, the Recursion OS allows us to discover and translate at scale across biology. However, we are cognizant that building disease-area expertise, especially in clinical development, is essential. And so, we have developed a multi-pronged, capital-efficient business model focused on key value-drivers that enable us to demonstrate our progress over time while continuing to invest in the development of the Recursion OS, which we believe is the engine of value creation in the long-term. While our mapping and navigating tools have the plasticity to be applied across therapeutic areas and modalities, our business model is tailored to maximize value and advance programs cost-effectively based on the nature of market and regulatory dynamics associated with our three value drivers (internal pipeline, transformational partnerships and fit-for-purpose proprietary biological and chemical data).
Figure 5. We harness the value and scale of our maps of biology using a capital efficient business strategy. Our business strategy is segmented into our following value-drivers: (i) internally developed programs in capital-efficient therapeutic areas; (ii) partnered programs in resource-intensive therapeutic areas; and (iii) proprietary, fit-for-purpose training data. *Includes a single oncology indication from our Roche and Genentech collaboration.
Value-Driver 1 - Internally Developed Programs in Capital-Efficient Therapeutic Areas
Recursion is advancing five clinical-stage programs across rare disease and oncology, which we believe are capital-efficient opportunities for our growing clinical development team to focus on. We continue to advance internal preclinical programs focused on oncology to continue building our pipeline.
Value-Driver 2 - Partnered Programs in Resource-Intensive Therapeutic Areas
Recursion has made substantial progress to deliver against two transformational discovery collaborations; first a collaboration in neuroscience and a single gastrointestinal oncology indication with Roche and Genentech signed in late 2021, and second a collaboration in fibrosis with Bayer signed in 2020 and significantly expanded in 2021. We expect to continue making progress towards potential value-accreting program milestones and map-building and data option milestones.
Value-Driver 3 - Proprietary, Fit-for-Purpose Training Data
While we will direct the generation of new data and utilize the latest data in Recursion’s Data Universe to maximize our pipeline and partnership value-drivers, we increasingly see the potential to license subsets of our over 21
petabytes of proprietary data to a growing universe of collaborators from both the biopharma and technology industries.
The Recursion OS
The creation of virtuous cycles of atoms and bits has been a competitive advantage for leaders in many industries outside of biopharma. This virtuous cycle of profiling the real (atoms) to create digital representations (bits) can be paralleled as an approach to mapping and navigating biology and chemistry as well.
Figure 6. Recursion’s virtuous cycle of atoms and bits. (1) Profile real biological and chemical systems using automation to scale a small number of data-rich assays, including phenomics, transcriptomics, InVivomics and ADMET to generate massive, high quality empirical data; (2) Aggregate and analyze the resultant data using a variety of in-house software tools including proprietary machine learning algorithms in both public and private clouds; and (3) Map and navigate leveraging proprietary software tools to infer relationships between biology and chemistry tested independently. These inferred relationships serve as the basis of our ability to predict how to navigate between biological states using chemical or biological perturbations, which we can then validate in our automated laboratories, completing a virtuous cycle of learning and iteration.
Specifically, at Recursion, automated wet-lab biology and dry-lab computational tools are organized in an iterative loop to rapidly translate in silico hypotheses into testable predictions, which in turn generates more data on which improved predictions can be made. The Recursion OS cycles between the profiling of real systems (atoms) and the aggregation and analysis of data (bits) to infer relationships across biological and chemical systems (mapping and navigating). Collectively, the components of the Recursion OS can be joined together to identify, validate and advance a broad portfolio of novel therapeutic programs quickly, cost-effectively and with minimal human intervention and bias - industrializing drug discovery. We use standardized, automated workflows to identify programs and advance them through key stages of the drug discovery and development pipeline as in the following graphic.
Figure 7. The Recursion OS is meant to industrialize the drug discovery and development process through multiple cycles of learning and iteration.
Our Recursion OS is composed of a broad suite of automated laboratory systems used to conduct standardized, high-dimensional data acquisition at scale. These data span phenomics, transcriptomics, InVivomics and ADME/DMPK assays. Recursion has built a physical library of approximately 1.7 million compounds, including over 1 million new chemical entity (NCE) starting point substances, a large library of known chemical entities which can serve as guideposts, and more than 500 thousand compounds belonging to our collaborators. Further, Recursion has generated a custom whole-genome arrayed CRISPR guide library. Together, these tools allow Recursion to explore millions of different biological perturbations in our own wet-labs. Our tissue culture facility has scaled the production of nearly 50 human cell types and has also enabled work at scale in co-cultures and complex iPSC-derived cell types. In 2022, for example, Recursion generated more than 500 billion human neuronal iPSC-derived cells for our partnered work with Roche and Genentech - a scale achieved by few if any other companies in the world.
Figure 8. Diverse datasets within the Recursion Data Universe are highly complementary. The Recursion Data Universe consists of complementary datasets spanning multiple data modalities. While phenomics data can be generated cost-effectively and at scale, other datasets such as transcriptomics, DMPK and InVivomics offer increasing insight as we translate programs from early discovery through development.
The Recursion OS is built on top of a core technology stack that is highly scalable and flexible. This stack is composed of infrastructure components, such as our wholly-owned supercomputer, BioHive-1, where much of our deep learning model training and research happens. In addition, we have built a custom software stack including many proprietary tools integrated into a full-stack data collection, aggregation, storage and analysis pipeline spanning target discovery to digital chemistry.
Flowing through our software infrastructure are more than 21 petabytes of highly relatable biological and chemical data, including: phenomics, transcriptomics, InVivomics, ADMET assays and bespoke bioassay data we call the Recursion Data Universe. We generate, evaluate and analyze this scaled data using our enabling software tool suite, which includes a custom Laboratory Information Management System (LIMS), custom applications to design large experimental layouts consisting of millions of perturbation conditions, tools and dashboards to automatically execute and continuously monitor experimental protocols and a MapApp which enables users to map and navigate core components of our data spanning more than three trillion predicted relationships. Recursion recently released a demo-version of one of our internal tools, MolRec, along with a massive open-source dataset (RxRx3), which allows potential collaborators to get a taste of how Recursion explores relationships among and between potential medicines and genes.
Figure 9. The MapApp allows our team to simultaneously view multiple relationships between genes and compounds. This proprietary software application enables us to rapidly explore inferred biological and chemical relationships in order to: (i) discover targets, (ii) predict active hits, (iii) optimize for similar or dissimilar relationships and (iv) predict mechanisms of action.
Virtuous Cycles of Atoms and Bits to Advance Programs
As of December 31, 2022, using our highly-automated wet-lab infrastructure, we have executed over 175 million experiments across different biological and chemical contexts in multiple human cell types. Experimental results reside within the Recursion Data Universe, which grows as new experiments are performed. Using this data, we apply sophisticated computational techniques to infer trillions of relationships between biological and pharmacological perturbations in silico and prioritize the most novel and promising candidates for further validation in our wet laboratories. Our mapping and navigating approach to drug discovery means that the ambitious experimental explorations that would have taken us over 1,000 years to physically execute can now be inferred nearly instantaneously due to the relatability of the datasets that we have already constructed. The computational methods at the core of mapping and navigating allow us to turn the output of each experiment from “data exhaust” into a data engine: every compound we profile is analyzed not for its activity against a single target, but for its inferred activity against all possible targets in our arrayed CRISPR library, as well as its similarity to every compound we have run before in its phenomap (digital relationship map of phenomic data) – producing a super-linear growth in biological relationships as we conduct experiments.
Figure 10. Mapping and navigating enables simultaneous genome-wide screening. Traditional pharma high-throughput screening methods screen thousands to millions of compounds simultaneously against single targets, deriving information about compound activity on that single target, but no information about other targets. Recursion’s mapping and navigating approach in phenomics enables us, in a single experiment, to infer the activity of a compound against all potential targets in our arrayed CRISPR knockout screen.
When building the Recursion OS, we first focused on discovering and validating novel biological targets because we believe that identifying the appropriate target is the most challenging step in the drug discovery process due to bias and limitations associated with the traditional approach to drug discovery. More recently, we have been actively expanding the Recursion OS to more rapidly identify novel chemical starting points, more rapidly drive chemistry optimization through structure-activity-relationships (SAR) and achieve higher success rates in translating our novel target discovery work into IND-enabled programs. In the future, we envision that we will further evolve our approach and incorporate data and techniques that improve our ability to execute clinical programs at scale, including population-scale genomics data and precision medicine tools in order to identify patients for which a potential therapeutic would be beneficial.
Figure 11. The productionized portions of the Recursion OS today. We use our proprietary software and highly-automated wet laboratory to design and execute up to 2.2 million experiments each week across diverse biological and chemical matter. Complex, high-dimensional data from these experiments are generated at a rate of up to 110 terabytes per week and aggregated and analyzed by proprietary neural networks in either distributed cloud computing environments or on our own supercomputer, BioHive-1. We leverage ML approaches to predict relationships between combinations of biological and chemical perturbations and have made more than 3 trillion such predictions. Our scientists navigate these predictions using proprietary software to discover novel relationships, which we can quickly test either in-house with our Industrialized Program Generation workflow or with clinical research organizations (CROs). As we validate or refute the predictions, our Recursion OS continuously improves.
Late-stage clinical failures are the primary driver of costs in today’s pharmaceutical R&D model, due in part to inherent uncertainty in the clinical development and regulatory process. Reducing the rate of costly, late-stage failures and accelerating the timeline from hit to a clinical candidate would create a more sustainable R&D model. To achieve this more sustainable model, we believe that in its ideal state, a drug discovery funnel would morph from the being shaped like the letter ‘V’ to being be shaped like the letter ‘T,’ where a broad set of possible therapeutics could be narrowed rapidly to the best candidate, which would advance through subsequent steps of the process quickly and with no attrition. Recursion’s goal is to leverage technology to reshape the typical drug discovery funnel towards its ideal state by moving failure as early as possible to rapidly narrowing the funnel into programs with the highest probability of success.
Figure 12. Reshaping the drug discovery funnel. Recursion’s goal is to leverage technology to reshape the typical drug discovery funnel towards its ideal state by moving failure as early as possible to rapidly narrowing the funnel into programs with the highest probability of success.
We believe we have made progress in reshaping the traditional drug discovery funnel in the following ways:
•Broaden the funnel of therapeutic starting points. Our flexible and scalable mapping tools and infrastructure enable us to infer trillions of relationships between human cellular disease models and therapeutic candidates based on real empirical data from our own wet-labs, ‘widening the neck’ of the discovery funnel beyond human-hypothesized targets.
•Identify failures earlier when they are relatively inexpensive. Our proprietary navigation tools enable us to explore our massive biological and chemical datasets to validate more and varied hypotheses rapidly. While this strategy results in an increase in early stage attrition, the system is designed to rapidly prioritize programs with a higher likelihood of downstream success based on the exploration of high-dimensional, systems-biology data. Over time, and as our OS improves, we expect that moving failure earlier in the pipeline will result in an overall lower cost of drug development.
•Accelerate delivery of high-potential drug candidates to the clinic. The Recursion OS contains a suite of digital chemistry tools that enable highly efficient exploration of chemical space, including 3D virtual screening as well as translational tools that improve the robustness and utility of in vivo studies.
By leveraging our Recursion OS to explore more than 170 disease programs, we have shown quantifiable improvements in the time, cost and anticipated likelihoods of program success by stage when compared to the traditional drug discovery process. We believe that future iterations of the Recursion OS will enable even greater improvements minimizing the total dollar-weighted failure and maximizing the likelihood of success.
Figure 13. The trajectory of our drug discovery funnel mirrors the ‘ideal’ pharmaceutical drug discovery funnel. We believe that, compared to industry averages, our approach allows us to: (i) identify low-viability programs earlier in the research cycle, (ii) spend less per program and (iii) rapidly advance programs to a validated lead. Data shown are the averages of all our programs from 2017 through 2022.
Over time, we believe continued successes and improvements in any or all of the dimensions highlighted above will improve overall R&D productivity, allowing us to address targeted patient populations that may otherwise not be commercially viable using traditional drug discovery approaches. Furthermore, we have seen our unbiased approach lead us to novel targets which we believe could enable us to outperform others in highly competitive disease areas where multiple parties often simultaneously pursue a limited number of similar target hypotheses. These advantages potentially significantly expand the total addressable market for our technology. However, the process of clinical development is inherently uncertain, and there can be no guarantee of success.
All of the programs in our internal pipeline are built on unique biological insights surfaced through the Recursion OS where: (i) the disease-causing biology is well defined but the downstream effects of the disease-cause are typically poorly understood, the primary targets are typically considered undruggable, or the primary targets are not well known in the context of a disease and (ii) there is a high unmet medical need, no approved therapies, or significant limitations to existing treatments. Several of our internal pipeline programs could have potential market opportunities in excess of $1.0 billion in annual sales. We currently have four programs in active clinical studies and are preparing for a fifth program to enter a Phase 1b/2 clinical trial in early 2024. In addition to our clinical stage programs, we are actively developing dozens of preclinical and discovery programs.
Figure 14. The power of our Recursion OS as exemplified by our expansive therapeutic pipeline. All populations defined above are US and EU5 incidence unless otherwise noted. EU5 is defined as France, Germany, Italy, Spain and UK. 1 Prevalence for hereditary and sporadic symptomatic CCM population. 2 Annual US and EU5 incidence for all NF2-driven meningiomas. 3 Our Targets Delta and Alpha programs have the potential to address a number of indications in the immunotherapy space. 4 Our MYC program has the potential to address a number of indications driven by MYC alterations, totaling 54,000 patients in the US and EU5 annually. We have not finalized a target product profile for a specific indication.
•REC-994 for the potential treatment of cerebral cavernous malformation, or CCM — a Phase 2, double-blind, placebo-controlled, safety, tolerability and exploratory efficacy study is underway. Orphan Drug Designation has been granted in the US and EU. We expect to share top-line data in 2H 2024.
•REC-2282 for the potential treatment of neurofibromatosis type 2, or NF2 — an adaptive, Phase 2/3, randomized, multicenter study is underway. Orphan Drug Designation in the US and EU as well as Fast Track Designation in the US have been granted. We expect to share a Phase 2 interim safety analysis in 2024.
•REC-4881 for the potential treatment of familial adenomatous polyposis, or FAP — a Phase 2, double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled study is underway. Orphan Drug Designation in the US and EU as well as Fast Track Designation in the US have been granted.
•REC-4881 for the potential treatment of AXIN1 or APC mutant cancers — a Phase 1b/2 study in select tumor types is expected to initiate in early 2024.
•REC-3964 for the potential treatment of Clostridioides difficile infection — a Phase 1 study in healthy volunteers is underway. We expect to share safety and PK data in 2H 2023.
Preclinical and Discovery Programs
Recursion continues to develop a suite of oncology programs progressing to and in the preclinical space. We believe many of these programs will remain internal at least through early clinical trials, though a subset may be well-positioned for asset-level partnerships at the preclinical or early clinical stages.
Recursion has made substantial progress to deliver against two large discovery collaborations; first a collaboration in neuroscience and a single gastrointestinal oncology indication with Roche and Genentech signed in late 2021, and second a collaboration in fibrosis with Bayer signed in 2020 and significantly expanded in 2021. We expect to continue to make progress to set up the potential for value-accreting program milestones and map-building and data option milestones.
Roche and Genentech
On December 5, 2021, we entered into a collaboration with Roche and Genentech with the goal to use the Recursion OS to create maps of chemical and whole genome genetic perturbations in multiple cellular contexts of relevance to neuroscience and a single gastrointestinal oncology indication. In addition, together with Roche and Genentech we will create multi-modal models and maps, including significant single-cell sequencing data supplied by our partners, to further expand and refine the number of inferred relationships we uncover. Both approaches will be used to discover and develop up to 40 collaboration programs. In 2022, we made significant progress against both the gastrointestinal-oncology and neuroscience portions of the collaboration, including cell type evaluation and significant cell scale up in support of initial Phenomap-building efforts which remain on track.
In August 2020, we entered into a Research Collaboration and Option Agreement with Bayer AG in the field of fibrosis. In December 2021, we significantly expanded this agreement to use our mapping and navigating tools to more efficiently identify biological and chemical insights that can be advanced as therapeutic programs. In 2022, we augmented our existing phenomaps with approximately 500,000 compounds from Bayer’s proprietary chemical library, significantly expanding the chemical diversity within our phenomaps. Additionally, we initiated four (4) new Programs (for a total of eight (8) total Programs initiated to date) and advanced multiple Programs towards value inflection points. Going forward, we expect the use of our mapping and navigating tools to rapidly accelerate the scale and pace at which we can initiate additional Programs.
Recursion was founded in November of 2013 as a spin-out from the laboratory of Recursion co-founder Dean Y. Li, then Vice-Dean of Research and Professor of Medicine at the University of Utah (currently President of Merck Research Labs). In Dean’s lab, then MD/PhD student Chris Gibson (currently Recursion CEO) was working with a team to study Cerebral Cavernous Malformation (CCM), a genetic disease for which Recursion now has a drug in human clinical trials. Their research had led them to believe that activation of a protein called RhoA played the central role in the manifestation of CCM pathophysiology in humans. They leveraged an approved drug called simvastatin that is known to inhibit RhoA activation to evaluate their hypothesis in an animal model of CCM disease. The result was the opposite of what they expected; the treatment trended towards making the mice worse, not better.
Figure 15. Modulating a hypothesis highlighted by a traditional approach resulted in a treatment that trended towards doing the opposite of what was expected.5
There were many reasons the experiment could have failed, but the real significance was that the result challenged the team to question the validity of the RhoA hypothesis that they had arrived at using traditional molecular and cellular biology tools. Coming off the failure, the team went back to the drawing board. During their work, they had noticed that human cellular models of CCM in human cells looked very different from healthy cells; that is to say that their cellular morphology was markedly different. That difference sparked an idea to try to unbias the approach by leveraging a phenotypic screen where they applied many different potential treatments to diseased cells, collected images and looked for molecules that reverted the ‘diseased’ cell morphology back to ‘healthy.’
Rather than use a traditional phenotypic screening approach, where people would look at the images by eye or use a very basic measure like the intensity of a single marker from the microscopy images, the team instead used very early ML approaches to make this process much more objective, quantifiable and scalable. It turned out that the ML algorithms had a much higher probability of predicting “hits” - i.e., chemical compounds that demonstrated efficacy in a subsequent completely different experiment where diseased cells were treated and measured to evaluate the level of improvement.
They ran the best molecules from the increasingly complex assay systems through multiple different animal studies, and together with their collaborators ultimately demonstrated that two of those compounds, including what is now REC-994 (a molecule that Recursion is exploring in a phase 2 human safety and exploratory efficacy clinical trial for CCM), rescued multiple aspects of the disease in mice.
5 Gibson, et al. (2015). Strategy for identifying repurposed drugs for the treatment of cerebral cavernous malformation. Circulation, 131(3), 289-99.
The early success of leveraging machine learning to explore complex biological data to generate novel hypotheses in a target-agnostic way compelled Chris and Dean, along with a third co-founder, Blake Borgeson to spin-out the technology from the University of Utah. They wanted to test the hypothesis of whether one could use this approach, or similar approaches, to scale drug discovery and development, and thus Recursion was born.
Industrializing the Drug Discovery Process
The traditional drug discovery and development process is characterized by substantial financial risks, with increasing and long-term capital outlays for development programs that often fail to reach patients as marketed products. Historically, it has taken over ten years and an average capitalized R&D cost of approximately $2 billion per approved medicine to move a drug discovery project from early discovery to an approved therapeutic. Such productivity outcomes have culminated in a rapidly declining internal rate of return for the biopharma industry.
Figure 16. Historical biopharma industry R&D metrics. The primary driver of the cost to discover and develop a new medicine is clinical failure. Less than 4% of drug discovery programs that are initiated result in an approved therapeutic, resulting in a risk-adjusted cost of approximately $1.8 to $2.6 billion per new drug launched.6,7,8,9,10
Despite significant investment and brilliant scientists, these metrics point to the need to evolve a more efficient drug discovery process and explore new tools. Traditional drug discovery relies on basic research discoveries from the scientific community to elucidate disease-relevant pathways and targets to interrogate. Coupled with biology’s incredible complexity, this approach has forced the industry to rely on reductionist hypotheses of the critical drivers of complex diseases, which can create a ‘herd mentality’ as multiple parties chase a limited number of therapeutic targets. The situation has been exacerbated by human bias (e.g., confirmation bias and sunk-cost fallacy). Accentuating this problem, the sequential nature of current drug discovery activities and the challenges with aggregation and relatability of data across projects, teams and departments lead to frequent replication of work and long timelines to discharge the scientific risk of such hypotheses. Despite decades of accumulated knowledge, the result is that drug discovery has unintentionally created hurdles for innovation.
Simultaneously, exponential improvements in computational speed and reductions in data storage costs driven by the technology industry, coupled with modern ML tools, have transformed complex industries from media to transportation to e-commerce. The biopharma sector, however, has been slower to embrace such innovations, except in narrow areas.
At Recursion, we are pioneering the integration of innovations across biology, chemistry, automation, data science and engineering to industrialize drug discovery in a full-stack solution built from the bottom-up across dozens of key workflows and processes critical in discovering and developing a drug. For example, by combining advances in high
6 Zhou, S. and Johnson, R. (2018). Pharmaceutical Probability of Success. Alacrita Consulting, 1-42
7 Steedman M, and Taylor K. (2020). Ten years on: Measuring the return from pharmaceutical innovation. Deloitte. 1-44.
8 DiMasi et al. (2016). Innovation in the pharmaceutical industry: New estimates of R&D costs. Journal of Health Economics. 47, 20-33.
9 Paul, et al. (2010). How to improve R&D productivity: the pharmaceutical industry’s grand challenge. Nature Reviews Drug Discovery. 9,203-214
10 Martin et al. (2017). Clinical trial cycle times continue to increase despite industry efforts. Nature Reviews Drug Discovery. 16, 157
content microscopy with arrayed CRISPR genome editing techniques, we can rigorously profile massive, high-dimensional biological and chemical perturbation libraries in multiple human cellular contexts. Leveraging advancements in data storage and computation, we can aggregate and analyze the massive resultant datasets to create digital ‘maps’ of human cellular biology. Finally, we can use modern AI and ML tools to infer relationships within the data, unconstrained by known biology or presumptive hypotheses. We believe that by harnessing advances in technology to industrialize drug discovery, we can derive novel biological insights not previously described by scientific researchers, reduce the effects of human bias inherent in discovery biology and reduce translational risk at the program outset.
Figure 17. Recursion’s approach to drug discovery. We utilize our Founding Principles on the right to build datasets which are scalable, reliable and relatable in order to elucidate novel biological and chemical insights and industrialize the drug discovery process.
We have used our approach to generate one of the largest biological and chemical datasets in the world (over 21 petabytes at the end of 2022) which includes proprietary phenomics, transcriptomics, InVivomics, ADME data and more across a large number of biological and chemical contexts. Additionally, we have built a proprietary suite of software applications within the Recursion OS which has identified over 3 trillion predicted biological and chemical relationships. The following table highlights how Recursion has scaled with respect to experiments, data and biological and chemical relationships. With our approach, we look to turn drug discovery into a search problem where we map and navigate biology in an unbiased manner to discover new insights and translate them into potential new medicines at scale.
Table 1. Biology and chemistry are complex – data that is scalable and relatable is a differentiator. We are a biotechnology company scaling more like a technology company, as demonstrated by our growth in inputs (experiments as well as biological and chemical contexts) and growth in outputs (data as well as biological and chemical relationships). (1) Includes approximately 500,000 compounds from Bayer’s proprietary library. (2) ‘Predicted Relationships’ refers to the number of unique perturbations that have been predicted using our maps.
Business Strategy and Value Drivers
While most small to medium-sized biopharma companies are focused on a narrow slice of biology or therapeutic area, where they believe they have an advantage or insight based on the summed experience of their team, the Recursion OS allows us to discover and translate at scale across biology. However, we are cognizant that building disease-area expertise, especially in clinical development, is essential. And so, we have developed a multi-pronged, capital-efficient business model focused on key value-drivers that enable us to demonstrate our progress over time while continuing to invest in the development of the Recursion OS, which we believe is the engine of value creation in the long-term. While our mapping and navigating tools have the plasticity to be applied across therapeutic areas and modalities, our business model is tailored to maximize value and advance programs cost-effectively based on the nature of market and regulatory dynamics associated with our three value drivers (internal pipeline, transformational partnerships and fit-for-purpose proprietary biological and chemical data).
Figure 18. We harness the value and scale of our maps of biology using a capital efficient business strategy. Our business strategy is segmented into our following value-drivers: (i) internally developed programs in capital-efficient therapeutic areas; (ii) partnered programs in resource-intensive therapeutic areas; and (iii) proprietary, fit-for-purpose training data. *Includes a single oncology indication from our Roche and Genentech collaboration.
Value Driver 1 - Internally Developed Programs in Capital Efficient Therapeutic Areas
We believe that the primary currency of any biotechnology company today is clinical-stage assets. These programs can be valued using a variety of models by stakeholders in the biopharma ecosystem and most importantly, present the potential to meet critical patient needs. Further, for Recursion, these assets have a variety of additional benefits, including: (i) validation of key elements of the Recursion OS, (ii) growing our expertise in clinical development and (iii) building in-house processes to facilitate smooth interaction with regulatory agencies and advance medicines towards the market. If the Recursion OS evolves in the manner with which it has been designed, then it will improve with more iterations such that future programs could be more novel and potentially more valuable than today’s programs. In this way, operating as a vertically-integrated biopharma company that leverages technology at every step from target discovery through clinical development (and even marketing and distribution) may be the long-term business model with the most upside for our stakeholders, including both investors and patients. Furthermore, we may be opportunistic about selling or licensing assets after they achieve key value-inflection milestones so that we can re-invest in our long-term strategy.
Value Driver 2 - Partnered Programs in Resource Intensive Therapeutic Areas
We believe that in its current form, our Recursion OS is already capable of delivering many more therapeutic insights than we would be able to responsibly shepherd alone today. As such, we have chosen to partner with experienced, top-tier biopharma companies to explore intractable and resource-intensive areas of biology like fibrosis with Bayer and neuroscience with Roche and Genentech. The key advantages of these partnerships are that: (i) we are able to deploy the Recursion OS to turn latent value into tangible value in areas of biology where it would be challenging for us to do so alone; (ii) the clinical development paths for these large therapeutic areas are often resource-intensive and highly complex; and (iii) we are able to learn from our colleagues at these top-tier companies such that it could give us a competitive advantage in the industry over the longer term. This strategy also embeds us in the discovery process of large pharmaceutical companies and gives rise to an alternative long-term business model whereby we become a valued partner of many such companies. Here, Recursion would focus on discovery efforts across a broad set of programs while relying on its partners to develop and market the medicines. Based on how value is ascribed across our industry today, this model alone is not yet feasible to maximize our business impact. However, we feel that due to shifts within the biopharma industry there is some potential for this portion of our business model to accrete notable value over the long-term.
Value Driver 3 - Proprietary, Fit-for-Purpose Training Data
As has been demonstrated in many other industries, a value drive and competitive advantage can be generated from the creation of a proprietary dataset. At Recursion, we have generated what we believe to be one of the largest fit-for-purpose, relatable biological and chemical datasets on earth. Spanning multiple omics technologies and more than 175 million unique experiments, the over 21 petabyte Recursion Data Universe is of the same rough scale as those generated by some of the oldest and largest pharma companies,11 but is built from scratch in our laboratories with a fundamental purpose to be used as training data for machine learning models. Through intensive internal work, Recursion uses this data and our own algorithms and software to generate and advance our own internal pipeline of medicines (Value Driver 1), as well as in partnership with our collaborators to advance additional discovery programs (Value Driver 2). Our most recent collaboration announcement with Roche and Genentech set an important precedent - there are up to or exceeding $500M in milestones unrelated to specific drug discovery programs, but instead based on successful creation and optioning of collaboration data generated by Recursion. As our field increasingly recognizes the potential for a coming revolution in drug discovery based on virtuous cycles of atoms and bits, these data are themselves becoming a direct value driver. While we will likely direct the generation of new data and exploit the latest data in our data Universe to maximize our pipeline and partnership value-drivers, we increasingly see the potential to license subsets of our data to a growing universe of collaborators for which internal efforts would be minimal, but value could be significant.
Competitive Landscape and Differentiation
There are three key factors that differentiate Recursion from the vast majority of other TechBio companies.
1.Recursion is biology-first, while most other companies are chemistry-first. The highest probability of failure for clinical stage programs in our industry is a lack of efficacy in the intended disease state or an unexpected side-effect. These failure modes are primarily driven by picking the wrong target or not fully understanding the role of that target in broader physiology and not by failure to generate molecules that successfully agonize or antagonize the target of interest. There are of course exceptions to this, but we believe that mapping and navigating biology solves a zero-to-one type problem, while optimizing chemistry is a critical, but insufficient step alone. Because the chemistry problem is more tractable, the vast majority of TechBio companies have started (or remain) here. We believe our biology-first approach is a more critical unlock, and now have the opportunity to build on that success at low cost by adding digital chemistry and related solutions to our solution stack, especially amidst an over-crowded space.
2.Recursion integrates the wet-lab and dry-lab in-house and at scale. With scaled wet-lab (atoms) and dry-lab (bits) creating a virtuous cycle of iteration, Recursion is well positioned compared to those companies of a similar stage either focused more completely on the wet-lab only (traditional biotech or pharma companies) or dry-lab only focused companies who are facing rapidly commoditized algorithms and a challenge differentiating on non-proprietary data.
3.Recursion has achieved a significant scale and stage much earlier than other companies. With five clinical-stage programs, an exciting preclinical pipeline, and two of the largest discovery partnerships in the industry with Roche/Genentech and Bayer, Recursion has achieved a scale, level of integration and stage that few other TechBio companies have. In the context of steep competition for resources amidst challenging capital markets, this position serves Recursion well, especially compared to many of the late stage private companies with significant valuations and burn.
11 Dougherty, E. (2018, October 24). On being and becoming a data science company. Novartis. https://www.novartis.com/stories/being-and-becoming-data-science-company
Figure 19. Recursion sits at a unique intersection of key advantages. Among TechBio companies, Recursion sits at a unique intersection of a (i) biology vs chemistry-first organization, focused on identifying novel relationships across biological targets and disease areas, which we believe to be the most pressing challenge in our industry; (ii) a virtuous cycle of wet-lab and dry-lab enabling virtuous cycles of iteration and proprietary insight generation; and (iii) with a scaled pipeline and partnerships differentiating from the many early startups and fee-for-service organizations.
While emerging competitors and large, well-resourced incumbents may pursue a similarly differentiated strategy to ours, we have two advantages as a first mover: (i) no amount of resources can compress the time it takes to observe naturally occurring biological processes and (ii) the growing Recursion Data Universe creates compounding network effects that may make it difficult for others to close the competitive gap.
The Recursion OS - Creating Virtuous Cycles of Atoms and Bits
The creation of virtuous cycles of atoms and bits has been a competitive advantage for leaders in many industries outside of biopharma. This virtuous cycle of profiling the real (atoms) to create digital representations (bits) can be paralleled as an approach to mapping and navigating biology and chemistry as well.
Figure 20. Recursion’s virtuous cycle of atoms and bits. (1) Profile real biological and chemical systems using automation to scale a small number of data-rich assays, including phenomics, transcriptomics, InVivomics and ADMET to generate massive, high quality empirical data; (2) Aggregate and analyze the resultant data using a variety of in-house software tools including proprietary machine learning algorithms on both public and private clouds; and (3) Map and navigate leveraging proprietary software tools to infer relationships between biology and chemistry tested independently. These inferred relationships serve as the basis of our ability to predict how to navigate between biological states using chemical or biological perturbations, which we can then validate in our automated laboratories, completing a virtuous cycle of learning and iteration.
Specifically, at Recursion, automated wet-lab biology and dry-lab computational tools are organized in an iterative loop to rapidly translate in silico hypotheses into testable predictions, which in turn generates more data on which improved predictions can be made. The Recursion OS cycles between the profiling of real systems (atoms) and the aggregation and analysis of data (bits) to infer relationships across biological and chemical systems (mapping and navigating). Each of these components is explored in more detail, below.
Figure 21. The productionized portions of the Recursion OS today. We use our proprietary software and highly-automated wet laboratory to design and execute up to 2.2 million experiments each week across diverse biological and chemical matter. Complex, high-dimensional data from these experiments are generated at a rate of up to 110 terabytes per week and aggregated and analyzed by proprietary neural networks in either distributed cloud computing environments or on our own supercomputer, BioHive-1. We leverage ML approaches to predict relationships between combinations of biological and chemical perturbations and have made more than 3 trillion such predictions. Our scientists navigate these predictions using proprietary software to discover novel relationships, which we can quickly test either in-house with our Industrialized Program Generation workflow or with contract research organizations (CROs). As we validate or refute the predictions, our Recursion OS continuously improves.
Figure 22. The Recursion OS is meant to industrialize the drug discovery and development process through multiple cycles of learning and iteration. The Recursion OS is built on biologically-native cycles of atoms and bits leveraging phenomics, transcriptomics and InVivomics to drive discovery and validation of targets and compounds, while chemically-native cycles of predictive DMPK (drug metabolism and pharmacokinetics) and automated microsynthesis drive optimization of validated hits towards development candidates suitable for human clinical trials.
In order to create large and relatable data sets, standardization and scale are two critical requirements that can be best achieved through automation. Standardization means that the experiment is executed consistently every time, day after day, year after year - and that any deviations can be detected, tracked and quantified. It involves meticulous metadata collection, prospective/retrospective experiment execution analysis, standard results storage, quantitative quality control and more. At the same time, massive scale, with millions of experiments executed per week, requires execution of multi-step assays processed rapidly and in a tightly orchestrated manner. This combination of precise repetition, high speed and massive volumes favors relying on robots over highly trained scientists, whose time is better spent on context-specific problems. In addition, automation of high-dimensional experiment readouts at scale enables cost reductions in the large high-dimensional digital data sets that can underpin today’s cutting edge opportunities in machine learning (bits).
While we do not consider ourselves to be hardware innovators, we have leveraged a significant team of automation scientists to assemble and synchronize advanced but widely-available robotic components, such as liquid dispensers, plate washers, incubation stations, automated HPLC, mass spectrometry and automated microscopy camera systems, to efficiently execute millions of experiments per week across a variety of data-rich outputs with only a small team overseeing the process at any given time. These robotic systems are modular by design and easily configurable to allow us to create complex and variable workflows. Furthermore, we have recently operationalized a fully integrated system that processes plates continuously through all steps in our primary experimental workflows. This fully integrated system is interoperable with the existing batch processing workcells but provides greater walk-away time for our operators and greater throughput in a smaller footprint.
Figure 23. Our high-throughput automation platforms make our labs look more like sophisticated manufacturing facilities than biology R&D laboratories. Our high-throughput phenomics platform (top) can execute up to 2.2 million experiments each week with high quality to enable downstream analyses. We are increasingly automating many other of our assays at Recursion.
At the core of the Recursion Data Universe is our proprietary cellular image dataset generated by our automated phenomics platform. While investigating various biological and chemical contexts, the readout remains constant: a fluorescent microscopy image that captures composite changes in cellular morphology; a cellular phenotype. We use our proprietary staining protocol to capture these changes in cellular morphology across our phenomic experiments. This protocol, consisting of six subcellular dyes imaged in six different channels, has been optimized to capture a wide array of biology across nearly any adherent human cell type that can be cultured and perturbed in laboratory conditions. As a result, we can capture the effects of a wide range of biological and pharmacological
phenomena of interest, including phenotypic changes induced by small molecules, genetic gain- and loss-of-function, toxins, secreted factors, cytokines, infectious agents, or any combination of the above.
Figure 24. Our fluorescent staining protocol images multiple large cellular structures to capture a holistic assessment of cellular state. We use fluorescent dyes to stain a set of common cellular substructures that are subsequently captured using fluorescent microscopy imaging. Combined with tools from the Recursion OS, this complex and rich biological data modality can inform a host of scientific questions. The top image is a composite of the 6 channels, in HUVEC cells. It is followed by faux-colored images of each of the 6 individual channels: nuclei in blue, endoplasmic reticula in green, actin in red, nucleoli in cyan, mitochondria in magenta and Golgi apparatus in yellow. The overlap in channel content is due in part to the lack of complete spectral separation between fluorescent stains.
Cellular morphology is a holistic measure of cellular state that integrates changes from underlying layers of cell biology, including gene expression, protein production and modification and cell signaling, into a single, powerful readout. Image-based -omics can be two to four orders of magnitude more data-dense per dollar than other -omics datasets that focus on these more proximal readouts, enabling us to generate far more data per dollar spent to inform our drug discovery efforts. We currently generate up to 13.2 million images or 110 terabytes of new data to the Recursion Data Universe per week across up to 2.2 million experiments. Lastly, our phenomics approach builds on the recent explosion of powerful computer vision and ML approaches driven by the technology industry over the last decade. Modern ML tools can be trained to identify the most salient features of images without relying on any pre-selected, disease-specific subject matter expertise, even if these features are imperceptible to the human eye. Using these tools, we can capture the aggregate cellular response induced by a disease-causing perturbation or therapeutic and quantify these changes in an unbiased manner, freeing us from human bias. In contrast, traditional drug discovery relies on presumptive target hypotheses and bespoke biological signaling assays that only capture narrow, pre-determined biology and thus limit the scope of biological exploration.
Figure 25. ML algorithms can detect cellular phenotypes that are indistinguishable to the human eye. Most morphological differences within our images are too subtle for the human eye to detect, but ML algorithms like those we deploy in our Recursion OS can readily distinguish between them. The heatmap of similarities shown here between learned embeddings of these images shows clear separation where even well-trained cell biologists or pathologists would be hard-pressed to describe consistent differences.
Our phenomics laboratory operates approximately 50 weeks each year. We have achieved this level of operational excellence by integrating state-of-the-art technology and adopting lean manufacturing principles. Furthermore, we ensure our lab generates consistent, accurate and precise data through the use of multiple systems: facility controls to prevent contamination of cells, rigorous assay validation and instrument qualification to ensure consistency and routine quality monitoring to automatically capture data and track all critical experiment specifications. Our quality system is designed such that we routinely monitor our performance to identify and implement the appropriate preventive and continuous improvement actions.
We have developed an in-house transcriptomics laboratory platform, complete with walk up automation and push button digital data processing, capable of profiling up to 15,000 samples per week covering expression of nearly 20,000 genes from samples drawn from any of our biological modules. At the end of 2022, we had leveraged our transcriptomics platform to sequence over 250,000 individual transcriptome samples to improve our biological understanding of many of our programs. In 2023, we intend to scale and automate this capacity further to enable hits identified from our phenomics platform to be confirmed using an orthogonal, transcriptomic readout as part of our Industrialized Program Generation workflows. This approach of combining high dimensional, large scale data layers from the Recursion OS, across phenomics and transcriptomics, allows us to increase our confidence around which insights to prioritize for scientist follow-up, while at the same time minimizing cost and human effort.
Figure 26. Recursion utilizes an adapted transcriptomic experimental process to leverage industry-standard sequencing systems at vastly reduced cost per sample.
In vivo studies are an important tool for providing an assessment of the efficacy and safety of a compound within the context of a complete, complex whole-organism system. Similar to other steps within the drug discovery and development process, conventional in vivo studies are fraught with human bias and limited in the post-study endpoints that they measure. Using our In Vivo Data Collection Infrastructure, we can collect more holistic measurements of an individual animal’s behavior and physiological state using continuous video feeds and sensor technology (e.g., temperature), surveilling animals in their home environment and analyzing readouts live throughout studies in progress. By automating the process of data collection, we can amass uninterrupted data on animal behavior and physiology across days, weeks, or even months allowing for a more accurate and holistic assessment of the animal’s health state across the entirety of the study. This data can subsequently be used to create more abstract representations of animal behavior, potentially allowing us to rapidly phenotype new animal
models and identify in vivo disease signatures that may be more relevant for assessing compound efficacy and potential liabilities.
In 2022, our Digital Vivarium consisted of 1,000 total digital cage units and we ran 21 safety (Digital Tolerability Assay) and 14 InVivomic efficacy studies involving our drug candidates. Our Digital Tolerability Assay allows us to non-invasively monitor activity in digital cages and detect meaningful differences between treated and untreated subjects that serve as an early indicator of established disease.
Figure 27. Our proprietary, scalable Smart Housing System for in vivo studies automatically collects and analyzes video and sensor data from all cages continuously.
In 2022, a total of 26 new in vitro pharmacology assays were developed and qualified for validating hits and characterizing molecules. Prioritized assays were optimized with standard operating procedures (SOPs) and quality control (QC) metrics and incorporated into workflows for compound prosecution and program advancement. In addition, three DMPK assays were developed in preparation for on-boarding to a custom-built integrated high-throughput robotic chemistry platform. As this data is generated, it is included in our data warehousing system that connects one-off experimental assays with the rest of the Recursion Data Universe. We have built an analytical laboratory equipped with state-of-the-art liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry equipment. Our analytical chemistry team supports work throughout the lifecycle of our programs, including assessing compound purity and identification for quality control, measuring compound levels in plasma and tissue samples from in vivo ADME and efficacy studies and biomarker identification and validation activities in support of preclinical and clinical translational efforts. To support SAR and the development of predictive models, we have invested in an automated, connected module to process multiple in vitro DMPK assays at scale to evaluate compounds for plasma protein binding, microsomal stability and cell permeability. Using this system we expect an operational capacity of up to 500 compounds per week.
Figure 28. Recursion’s automated DMPK system allows for automated assay execution across plasma protein binding, microsomal stability and cell permeability studies at scale to advance programs while generating state-of-the-art training data for ML and AI algorithm development. The system has been designed to allow for future potential addition of additional modules into the automated workflow such as addition in vitro absorption, distribution, metabolism, excretion, and toxicity (ADMET) testing.
Cell Culture and Cell Differentiation Tools
We have built a state-of-the-art cell culture facility to consistently produce high-quality, primary mammalian cells, such as vein, kidney, lung, liver, skin and immune cell subsets, as well as stem cell-derived and cancer cell lines. Approximately 50 cell types have been onboarded to our high-throughput discovery systems, spanning primary cells, cell lines and iPSCs. In 2022, we greatly expanded our cell culture facility footprint to perform work using human induced pluripotent stem cell (hiPSC) lines. Specifically, we have developed protocols using CRISPR genome editing technologies to generate knock-out or knock-in lines. We have developed protocols to differentiate hiPSC cells into several distinct cell types using 3D and 2D differentiation methods. Furthermore, we have developed internal capabilities to characterize these cells using standardized and partly automated methods to molecularly and functionally characterize the differentiated progeny. Lastly, we have developed a scalable platform to produce 50-100 billion cells of interest per week and cryopreserve cells in assay-ready frozen format. In 2022, our team produced over 500 billion hiPSC-derived cells of interest to support various ongoing projects.
Figure 29. Various cells grown at scale for phenomics assays in-house by Recursion. From top left in clockwise order: iPSC-astrocytes, Bronchial Epithelial Cells, iPSC-neurons, dermal fibroblasts, iPSC-cardiomyocytes and U2OS cells.
Table 2. Numerous and diverse cell types onboarded to our platform enable us to broadly interrogate biology. Approximately 50 human cell types have been onboarded to our high-throughput discovery systems, spanning primary cells, cell lines and cells derived from iPSCs.
We have on-boarded innovations including large scale, microcarrier-based, suspension culture systems to reduce footprint and increase growth surface for additional scale. We will continue to onboard additional cutting-edge innovations to scale our work further. We maintain a strong track record of quality and consistency in our cell culture facility by implementing facility design and control systems that are uncommon among technology-enabled drug discovery companies. These designs and controls include rigorous process validation and documentation, a personnel training and qualification program and routine quality monitoring. Our quality system is designed such that we routinely monitor our performance to identify and implement the appropriate preventive and continuous improvement actions.
Figure 30. Recursion’s recent facilities expansion has created room for further growth of its specialized high-scale precision tissue culture of diverse and complex human cell types.
Our in-house chemistry tools include physical compound collections, state-of-the-art compound storage and handling infrastructure and high-precision analytical equipment. Our experienced team of chemists use this equipment and a network of reputable CROs to advance discovery efforts and deliver differentiated drug candidates.
We have a total in-house chemical library of approximately 1.7 million small molecules from a combination of commercial, semi-proprietary and proprietary and partner sources and use this library to identify chemical starting points for discovery campaigns. Over 1 million of these compounds reside within the Recursion’s novel chemical entity library (i.e. these are not compounds belonging to our big-pharma partners), curated by our medicinal chemists and designed for highly druggable chemical properties while avoiding undesirable chemical properties, such as poor solubility and permeability. While this library has been constructed to maximize chemical diversity, we have ensured that several analogs of many compound cores are included to help identify emergent SAR for early hits and enable rapid hit expansion into readily available analogs. Additionally, we have curated a selection of approximately 9,000 clinical-stage and preclinical compounds from public forums or filings, covering approximately 1,000 unique mechanisms of action, for which an abundance of existing data and annotations currently exist. These well-characterized molecules are frequently used as tool compounds within our work and may be advanced as therapeutic programs if the Recursion OS reveals unique and previously undisclosed biological activity. Approximately 500,000 compounds are from Bayer’s NCE library, for which we do not have structural information.
We believe that the scale of our total in-house chemical library is comparable to the scale of chemical libraries curated by some large pharmaceutical companies. We plan to substantially increase the size and diversity of our NCE library over the coming years through a combination of partnerships and investments in automated chemical microsynthesis in order to more fully understand novel biological and chemical relationships. Furthermore, we envision that an automated chemical microsynthesis system would integrate with existing sample management, synthesis and purification capabilities. With the completion of our recent wet-laboratory expansion, we now have the potential capability to store up to more than 60 million compounds (in plated formats) onsite.
Figure 31. Our internal chemical libraries are highly diverse. This visualization of the structural diversity of approximately 1,000,000 of our in-house small molecules, where compounds are clustered based on descriptors using t-distributed stochastic neighbor embedding, demonstrates the evenly distributed and diverse nature of our
compounds. This diversity increases the probability that we capture useful biochemical interactions across a broad range of biology. Note that red dots indicate known chemical entities.
Processing and Data Storage Infrastructure
The Recursion OS is built on top of a core technology stack that is highly scalable and flexible. We have adopted a hybrid-cloud strategy, leveraging the benefits of both public and private cloud infrastructure depending on the context and our needs:
•Public Cloud. The public cloud is our default choice for production workloads and applications. The scale, elasticity of compute and storage and economies of scale offered by public cloud computing providers enable us to cost-effectively execute our strategy.
•Private Cloud. The private cloud, or edge computing, is used to integrate our lab data flows, including the upload of data to the public cloud.
•BioHive-1 and High Performance Computing in a Private Cloud. Much of our deep learning model training and research happens with our world-class supercomputer named BioHive-1. BioHive-1 is built on NVIDIA’s DGX SuperPod architecture and is on the TOP500 list of the world’s most powerful supercomputers as of November 2022.
Figure 32. We believe BioHive-1 is one of the most powerful supercomputers dedicated wholly to drug discovery for a single company. BioHive-1 consists of 40 NVIDIA DGX A100 640GB nodes, which further expands our capability to rapidly improve ML models.
Enabling Software Tools
Alongside our infrastructure, we have built a suite of tools that empower our scientists to accurately design, execute and verify the quality of up to 2.2 million diverse experiments each week. Our tools, which take into account real-time onsite reagent supplies, enable consistent control strategies and design standards that make each week’s data relatable across time. Additionally, these tools automatically flag experiments or processes which miss quality
requirements or stall at some point in the process and notify the appropriate Recursionaut, providing them the tooling needed for manual intervention. Elements of our Enabling Software Tool suite include:
•Experiment Design. The Laboratory Information Management System (LIMS) tracks reagent inventory and enables compound selection from our library. Custom applications design large experimental layouts consisting of millions of perturbation conditions with appropriate randomization and control strategies. Proprietary algorithms design CRISPR gene editing guide RNAs for maximal knockout efficiency.
•Experiment Execution and QC. This suite of tools and dashboards automatically executes and continuously monitors experimental protocols to ensure reliable experiment execution. Custom web applications enable our Recursion scientists to view and interact with microscopy images and associated metadata from our phenomics platform for systematic QC at both the image- and plate-level.
Figure 33. Software tools allow our scientists to design massive experiments while complying with our complex proprietary rules for layout. This graphical interface facilitates experiment plate layout specification for experiments that can span more than 1,000 1536-well plates while ensuring the relatability and appropriate design fit for the purpose of training machine-learning algorithms.
The Recursion Data Universe
The Recursion Data Universe comprises over 21 petabytes of highly relatable biological and chemical data, including: phenomics, transcriptomics, InVivomics, ADMET assays and bespoke bioassay data. These different data modalities are highly complementary as we advance drug discovery and development programs. Phenomic data provides a broad, foundational layer of biological and chemical data, while other datasets provide greater translational insights.
Data Processing Tools
To understand, explore and relate new or existing data in the Recursion Data Universe, we must normalize, transform and analyze the data. Our tools in this layer manage the streaming of our data at scale to the appropriate public and private cloud, the transformation of our images into mathematical representations through our in-house proprietary convolutional neural networks and the standard and custom analyses performed on our data as parameterized and requested by users. Anomalies are flagged to the team for fast resolution.
Figure 34. We convert raw images into a list of features that allows cross-image comparison. Microscopy images are run through a deep convolutional network with an architecture similar to the one above. The network is trained on our phenomics data so that, layer by layer, each image is transformed into a list of 128 features representing the cellular biology in the image. The resulting features power downstream analysis.
Biological and Chemical Activity Assessment
Our activity assessment tools enable us to evaluate the robustness of diverse disease model phenotypes and subsequently measure the activity of potential therapeutic agents within these disease models. These tools are target-agnostic by design, explore cellular biology holistically and enable the exploration of many disease models and potential therapeutics simultaneously with no significant alteration to the core platform.
Figure 35. Our proprietary user interface enables our scientists to rapidly identify compounds with maximum positive effect on a disease phenotype while minimizing side effects. The results from our empirical hit identification screens allow drug discovery teams to rapidly explore results and focus on compounds that are believed to be the most promising.
Mapping and Navigating to Drive Outcomes
Our mapping and navigating tools are a rapidly growing suite of in-house software applications designed to process and translate data from the Recursion Data Universe into actionable insights for our research and development teams to accelerate programs which fall into two categories: (i) insights into underlying biology and early therapeutic starting points and (ii) insights into the specific chemical substrate of interest.
Recursion’s phenomaps are a massive database of relationships amongst biological and chemical perturbations inferred in silico based on phenotypic similarity. To date, we have built phenomaps consisting of whole genome CRISPR genetic knockouts as well as a large number of small and large molecule-perturbations at multiple concentrations in multiple human cell types. Collectively, these phenomaps contain over 3 trillion inferred biological and chemical relationships generated solely by ML tools without human bias. Our ability to query the relationships between any perturbations in our phenomaps changes drug discovery from an iterative trial-and-error process into a computationally-driven search problem. Furthermore, our teams use phenomaps to understand the mechanisms underpinning disease and how to manipulate them. For example, we can query the similarity (or dissimilarity) created by the CRISPR-engineered knockout of any two genes from our whole-genome arrayed CRISPR screen, revealing both known and novel drug targets never before described in scientific literature. We can also query the similarity between any small molecule in our library and all genetic knockouts, uncovering a compound’s mechanism of action and, most importantly, can infer the activity of such molecules against high-value drug targets. Using automated workflows, we can iteratively add phenotypes for new chemical compounds to our phenomaps on a weekly cadence, further expanding the diversity of chemical space that we can explore and allowing us to optimize individual program chemistry.
The computational methods enabling phenomaps allow us to turn the output of each experiment from “data exhaust” into a data engine. Unlike a traditional high-throughput screen, in which many compounds are profiled for their activity against a single target at a time, in our mapping and navigating approach, every compound we profile is analyzed not for its activity against a single target, but for its inferred activity against all possible targets in our arrayed CRISPR library, as well as its similarity to every compound we have run before in its phenomap – producing a super-linear growth in biological relationships as we conduct experiments.
Figure 36. Mapping and navigating enables simultaneous genome-wide screening. Traditional pharma high-throughput screening methods (left) screen thousands to millions of compounds simultaneously against single targets, deriving information about compound activity on that single target, but little or no information about other targets. Recursion’s mapping and navigating approach (right) enables us, in a single experiment, to infer the activity of a compound against all potential targets in our arrayed CRISPR knockout screen.
We have invested to create processing pipelines and intuitive user interfaces of our phenomaps that help our scientists navigate the breadth of these relationships and elucidate which insights are most promising. Our flagship user interface, the MapApp, enables users to mine relationships using several complementary visualizations, statistical measurements and data layers including known information about compounds or known relationships between genes and diseases to rapidly distinguish novel insights. We are looking to augment this information further to include predicted data related to physicochemical and structural properties, synthesizable compounds not yet tested on our platform, ADMET assays and in vivo experiments.
Figure 37. The MapApp allows our team to simultaneously view multiple relationships between genes and compounds. This proprietary software application enables us to rapidly explore inferred biological and chemical relationships in order to: (i) discover targets, (ii) predict active hits, (iii) optimize for similar or dissimilar relationships and (iv) predict mechanisms of action.
Digital Chemistry Platform
The Digital Chemistry Platform is a core part of Recursion’s software ecosystem, comprising an integrated suite of proprietary and commercial tools, enabling our medicinal and computational chemistry team to scalably advance programs from hit to candidate. Key components of the digital chemistry platform include: (i) unified access to and visualization of chemical structures and assay data (including internally-generated high or low-dimensional assay data, externally-generated in vitro or in vivo data and DMPK data); (ii) integrated predictive modeling, chemical search and computational chemistry capabilities; and (iii) molecular design and collaboration. Predictive modeling available in the Digital Chemistry Platform includes both commercially available predictive tools as well as internally developed deep-learning based methods and is applied to both potency and ADMET optimization. We intend to further invest in predictive and digital chemistry capabilities across three domains: (i) chemistry-centric ML model development, (ii) chemistry-centric data generation and (iii) digital and physical chemistry process development to more efficiently drive the Design-Make-Test-Analyze cycle of chemistry optimization, including the roll-out of industrialized workflows that integrate chemistry and biological assay steps autonomously.
InVivomics Research Suite
Our InVivomics Research Suite is a proprietary collection of software tools that enable scientists to monitor and analyze behavioral and physiological data from ongoing and completed in vivo studies. Study data for individual animals or aggregated study groups can be explored in near real-time, better ensuring that the final study data will be reproducible and interpretable and allowing researchers to prepare for follow-on activities prior to final study completion. Continuous monitoring allows researchers to similarly flag unexpected effects that may arise from animal handling, dosing, or compound liabilities and modify or terminate a study as needed. At the end of the study, graphical and tabular data are automatically generated to aid in the evaluation of study results and the design of follow-up in vivo studies.
Additionally, continuous video feeds and our proprietary animal cages enable us to amass uninterrupted data on animal behavior and physiology across days, weeks, or even months. ML tools within our InVivomics Research Suite can use this data to create more comprehensive representations of animal behavior, allowing us to rapidly phenotype new animal models and identify in vivo disease signatures that may be more relevant for assessing potential compound safety and efficacy attributes.
Figure 38. The InVivomics Research Suite allows our team to track and analyze a broad range of data in ongoing animal studies. These tools enable our in vivo scientists to monitor individual subjects through near real-time video feed and data generation and review study level data.
Bridging from Recursion OS Insights to Program Advancement
The Recursion OS is an integrated, multi-faceted system for iteratively mapping and navigating massive biological and chemical datasets that contain trillions of inferred relationships between disease-causative perturbations and potentially therapeutic compounds. Individually, components of the Recursion OS can be used to build or interrogate one piece of the drug discovery value chain. Collectively, the components of the Recursion OS can be joined together to identify, validate and advance a broad portfolio of novel therapeutic programs quickly, cost-effectively and with minimal human intervention and bias - industrializing drug discovery. We use standardized, automated workflows to identify programs and advance them through key stages of the drug discovery and development pipeline as in Figure 22.
Step 1: Inference
Using our mapping tools and infrastructure, we have profiled diverse biological and pharmacological perturbations, including CRISPR gene knockouts, soluble factors, bacterial toxins and small molecules. Recursion’s phenomaps contain trillions of inferred relationships amongst these perturbations that have been inferred in silico based on phenotypic similarity.
In order to identify novel program starting points, it is important that the Recursion OS accurately predict relationships across diverse domains of biology. To confirm the accuracy of our predictions, we have demonstrated that our approach recapitulates hundreds of well-known biological pathways. In the example below, we illustrate our phenomap predictions for approximately 150 gene knockouts from canonical biological pathways and known agonists or antagonists of these same pathways. By comparing the phenotypes induced by these perturbations to one another using our Recursion OS, we observed that each perturbation creates a unique phenotype and phenotypes form clusters that recapitulate well-understood biological pathways, including genes involved in Bcl-2 signaling, NF-KB signaling, RAS signaling, JAK/STAT signaling and TGFß signaling.
Figure 39. Inferred relationships between genes and small molecules recapitulate well known biology. Above, we show a visualization of well studied genes and small molecules. Increasingly dark shades of red reflect an increasing degree of phenotypic similarity. Increasingly dark shades of blue reflect an increasing degree of phenotypic oppositeness or anti-similarity (which often suggests inhibitory relationships between genes, though possibly distal).
These findings validate the accuracy of our phenomap relationships and suggest that we can use our approach to identify new drug targets or early therapeutic starting points. We begin de novo programs by searching our phenomaps with respect to (i) well-known biological pathways or (ii) human genetics data and identifying novel gene targets or compound (e.g., small molecule) perturbations that are inferred to have a therapeutic effect above statistically-defined thresholds.
Step 2: Hit Identification
Promising compounds are automatically advanced in our Industrialized Program Generation workflows for further evaluation. First, we physically test candidate compounds in multiple concentrations and replicates using our phenomics assay, including directly in the disease-relevant background, to confirm our predictions. These experiments are designed to confirm predicted relationships of interest from our phenomaps and can be completed rapidly.
Compounds that advance from our phenomics platform are evaluated in one or more high-dimensional, in vitro orthogonal assays to confirm the relationship we observed from our phenomics platform. Today, our transcriptomics platform is used as the primary orthogonal assay within our automated workflows. However, proteomics or metabolomics assays may also be used in the future. Compounds, and related compound series, that confirm and validate in one or more orthogonal assays may be advanced to more bespoke and low-throughput assays as deemed necessary by our scientific teams.
Throughout the early stages of this process, we have intentionally limited human intervention in order to (i) minimize bias and (ii) minimize our dependency on scientists to evaluate and analyze voluminous data packages. Rather, program advancement is automatically triggered if compounds meet pre-specified statistical thresholds. The decision to automate the decision making process, in addition to automating physical experimentation, allows us to advance large numbers of programs simultaneously and efficiently. Data from each assay is summarized in reports which can be reviewed by our scientific teams to assist with program prioritization and advancement as needed.
Step 3: Hit to Lead
After compounds have been empirically confirmed in multiple orthogonal assays, our medicinal chemists work to optimize early chemical starting points into drug-like molecules using our Industrialized Hit-to-Lead (iH2L) workflows. One critical step in this process is to further understand the mechanism by which compounds are demonstrating a therapeutic effect. One way in which our chemists can begin this process, is by using our mapping
and navigating software tools to compare the phenotype of a candidate molecule to the phenotypes of (i) approximately 9,000 well-characterized clinical-stage and preclinical compounds in our library or (ii) tens of thousands of CRISPR-engineered genetic knockouts in our phenomaps. Novel chemical entities that cluster with annotated compounds and genetic landmarks may share similar mechanistic functions. The below data demonstrates the power of our embeddings to accurately cluster diverse compounds with similar mechanisms of action.
Figure 40. Compounds with the same mechanism cluster together phenotypically. Each dot represents a different compound. Compounds that are phenotypically similar reside closer together and recapitulate mechanistic similarities.
Additionally, while a compound may be active in our screens, most early therapeutic starting points have low potency and undesirable drug properties and must be optimized before advancing into in vivo and, ultimately, human studies. During the hit-to-lead process, our chemists may leverage our phenomics platform to repeatedly measure changes in compound potency and selectivity that result from changes in compound structure. Our chemists also take advantage of our Digital Chemistry Platform to conduct chemical expansion exercises across more than 1 trillion molecules in our in silico library which we can then order for further profiling.
Because this process may extend over several months, it is critical that our platform assay is highly stable over time. To ensure this stability, we test that our assay can reproduce specific measures of compound activity, such as a compound’s EC50 (the concentration of a drug that gives half-maximal response) or max-effect (the maximal response), in experiments run weeks, or even months, apart. In the example below, we ran four separate experiments of a HIF2a inhibitor known to be active against our VHL disease model over a period of three months. Dose-response curves across all four runs demonstrate a high degree of overlap, including highly similar EC50s and max-effect. Our calculated minimum significance ratio from this study, a common industry metric of in vitro
assay reproducibility over time, is 1.076, which is highly robust by industry benchmarks12. These results demonstrate the stability of our assay and the ability to use our phenomic platform as a basis for SAR.
Figure 41. Compound activity is reproducible across experimental runs. Dose response curves from multiple runs of the same tool compound against our disease model for VHL loss-of-function show high consistency with a minimum significance ratio of 1.076.
Step 4: Candidate Evaluation and IND Preparation
Prior to nominating a clinical candidate, optimized molecules are evaluated in more complex and disease-relevant in vivo models using our InVivomics platform. This process consists of two steps. Firstly, compounds are tested in Digital Tolerability studies, during which we non-invasively monitor subject activity to confirm the most promising compound (e.g. within a series) and identify an optimal dosage. Secondly, we run efficacy studies using our proprietary cage hardware, including continuous sensors and high-resolution video systems, to assess compound effects. Readouts are reported in real time rather than at the end of a study enabling scientists to make informed and impactful decisions regarding study continuation, modification, or termination as well as program advancement.
After optimizing therapeutic drug candidates, we select those compounds that have the best chemical properties to advance through development and ultimately clinical trials. We have built the internal capabilities to drive clinical candidates through IND-enabling studies, regulatory approval processes and human clinical studies. Collectively, members of our team have been involved in hundreds of clinical trials. Additionally, we work closely with a team of external consultants across regulatory, CMC and clinical development to ensure execution success. In the future, we envision that we will evolve the Recursion OS to incorporate data and techniques that improve our ability to execute clinical programs at scale, including population-scale genomics data, industrialized biomarker development and precision medicine tools in order to identify patients for which a potential therapeutic would be beneficial.
The End Result - A Pipeline Designed to Move Failure Early in the Process
Late-stage clinical failures are the primary driver of costs in today’s pharmaceutical R&D model, due in part to inherent uncertainty in the clinical development and regulatory process. Reducing the rate of costly, late-stage failures and accelerating the timeline from hit to a clinical candidate would create a more sustainable R&D model. To achieve this more sustainable model, we believe that in its ideal state a drug discovery funnel would morph from the being shaped like the letter ‘V’ to being shaped like the letter ‘T,’ where a broad set of possible therapeutics could be narrowed rapidly to the best candidate, which would advance through subsequent steps of the process quickly and with no attrition.
12 Haas JV, Eastwood BJ, Iversen PW, et al. (Updated 2017). Minimum Significant Ratio – A Statistic to Assess Assay Variability. Assay Guidance Manual [Internet].
Figure 42. Reshaping the drug discovery funnel. Recursion’s goal is to leverage technology to reshape the typical drug discovery funnel towards its ideal state by moving failure as early as possible to rapidly narrowing the funnel into programs with the highest probability of success.
We believe we have made progress in reshaping the traditional drug discovery funnel in the following ways:
•Broaden the funnel of therapeutic starting points. Our flexible and scalable mapping tools and Infrastructure enable us to infer trillions of relationships between human cellular disease models and therapeutic candidates based on real empirical data from our own wet-labs, ‘widening the neck’ of the discovery funnel beyond hypothesized and therefore human-biased targets.
•Identify failures earlier when they are relatively inexpensive. Our proprietary navigation tools enable us to explore our massive biological and chemical datasets to validate more and varied hypotheses rapidly. While this strategy results in an increase in early stage attrition, the system is designed to rapidly prioritize programs with a higher likelihood of downstream success because they have been explored in the context of high-dimensional, systems-biology data. Over time, and as our OS improves, we expect that moving failure earlier in the pipeline will result in an overall lower cost of drug development.
•Accelerate delivery of high-potential drug candidates to the clinic. The Recursion OS contains a suite of digital chemistry tools that enable highly efficient exploration of chemical space, including 3D virtual screening as well as translational tools that improve the robustness and utility of in vivo studies.
We have leveraged our Recursion OS to explore more than 170 disease programs to a depth sufficient to quantify improvements in the time, cost and anticipated likelihoods of program success by stage compared to the traditional drug discovery paradigm. We believe that future iterations of the Recursion OS will enable greater improvements. Ultimately, we look to minimize the total dollar-weighted failure while maximizing the likelihood of success.
Figure 43. The trajectory of our drug discovery funnel mirrors the ‘ideal’ pharmaceutical drug discovery funnel. We believe that, compared to industry averages, our approach allows us to: (i) identify low-viability programs earlier in the research cycle, (ii) spend less per program and (iii) rapidly advance programs to a validated lead. Data shown are the averages of all our programs from 2017 through 2022.
Over time, we believe continued successes and improvements in any or all of the dimensions highlighted above will improve overall R&D productivity, allowing us to address targeted patient populations that may otherwise not be commercially viable using traditional drug discovery approaches. Furthermore, we have seen our unbiased approach lead us to novel targets which we believe could enable us to outperform others in highly competitive disease areas where multiple parties often simultaneously pursue a limited number of similar target hypotheses. These advantages potentially significantly expand the total addressable market for our technology. However, the process of clinical development is inherently uncertain, and there can be no guarantee that we will achieve shorter development timelines with future product candidates.
There are three key factors that differentiate Recursion from the vast majority of other TechBio companies. First, Recursion integrates both wet-lab and dry-lab capabilities in-house in order to create virtuous cycles of learning and iteration. Second, Recursion already functions at significant scale (e.g., five clinical-stage programs, an exciting preclinical pipeline, and two of the largest discovery partnerships in the industry with Roche/Genentech and Bayer, one of the largest biological and chemical datasets in the world, etc.). Third, although Recursion has built significant chemistry capabilities, Recursion was founded as a biology-first company in order to mitigate one of the fundamental causes of failure in drug discovery, choosing the wrong target associated with a disease. While emerging competitors and large, well-resourced incumbents may pursue a similarly differentiated strategy to ours, we have two advantages as a first mover: (i) no amount of resources can compress the time it takes to observe naturally occurring biological processes and (ii) the growing Recursion Data Universe creates compounding network effects that may make it difficult for others to close the competitive gap. In the future, we envision building the following technologies into the Recursion OS.
Figure 44. We continue to integrate new capabilities into the Recursion OS in order to create additional cycles of learning and iteration that can lead to a more complete understanding of biology and chemistry. In the future, we envision investing in additional digital chemistry capabilities, automated chemical microsynthesis, population-scale genomics data and other technologies.
All of the programs in our internal pipeline are built on unique biological insights surfaced through the Recursion OS where: (i) the disease-causing biology is well defined but the downstream effects of the disease-cause are typically poorly understood, the primary targets are typically considered undruggable, or the primary targets are not well known in the context of a disease and (ii) there is a high unmet medical need, no approved therapies, or significant limitations to existing treatments. Several of our internal pipeline programs could have potential market opportunities in excess of $1.0 billion in annual sales. We currently have four programs in active clinical studies and are preparing for a fifth program to enter a Phase 1b/2 clinical study in early 2024. In addition to our clinical stage programs, we are actively developing dozens of preclinical and discovery programs.
▪REC-994 for the potential treatment of cerebral cavernous malformation, or CCM — a Phase 2, double-blind, placebo-controlled, safety, tolerability and exploratory efficacy study is underway. Orphan Drug Designation has been granted in the US and EU. We expect to share top-line data in 2H 2024.
▪REC-2282 for the potential treatment of neurofibromatosis type 2, or NF2 — an adaptive, Phase 2/3, randomized, multicenter study is underway. Orphan Drug Designation in the US and EU as well as Fast Track Designation in the US have been granted. We expect to share a Phase 2 interim safety analysis in 2024.
▪REC-4881 for the potential treatment of familial adenomatous polyposis, or FAP — a Phase 2, double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled study is underway. Orphan Drug Designation in the US and EU as well as Fast Track Designation in the US have been granted.
▪REC-4881 for the potential treatment of AXIN1 or APC mutant cancers — a Phase 1b/2 study in select tumor types is expected to initiate in early 2024.
▪REC-3964 for the potential treatment of Clostridioides difficile infection — a Phase 1 study in healthy volunteers is underway. We expect to share safety and PK data in 2H 2023.
We believe that the number of potential programs we can generate with our Recursion OS is key to the future of our company, as a greater volume of validated programs has a higher likelihood of creating value. Additionally, we believe that our large number of potential programs makes us an attractive partner for larger pharmaceutical companies. The static or declining level of R&D output at many large pharmaceutical companies means that they have an ongoing need for new projects to fill their pipelines.
Figure 45. The power of our Recursion OS as exemplified by our expansive therapeutic pipeline. All populations defined above are US and EU5 incidence unless otherwise noted. EU5 is defined as France, Germany, Italy, Spain and UK. 1 Prevalence for hereditary and sporadic symptomatic CCM population. 2 Annual US and EU5 incidence for all NF2-driven meningiomas. 3 Our Targets Delta and Alpha programs have the potential to address a number of indications in the immunotherapy space. 4 Our MYC program has the potential to address a number of indications driven by MYC alterations, totaling 54,000 patients in the US and EU5 annually. We have not finalized a target product profile for a specific indication.
REC-994 for Cerebral Cavernous Malformation - Phase 2
REC-994 is an orally bioavailable, superoxide scavenger small molecule being developed for the treatment of symptomatic CCM. In Phase 1 SAD and MAD trials in healthy volunteers directed and executed by us, REC-994 demonstrated excellent tolerability and suitability for chronic dosing. CCM is among the largest rare disease opportunities and has no approved therapies to date. A Phase 2 double-blind, placebo-controlled, safety, tolerability and exploratory efficacy study is underway. Orphan Drug Designation has been granted in the US and EU. We expect to share top-line data in 2H 2024.
CCM is a disease of the neurovasculature for which approximately 360,000 patients in the US and EU5 are symptomatic. Less than 30% of patients with CCM experience symptoms, resulting in the disease being severely underdiagnosed and suggesting that well more than 1 million patients may have the disease in the US and EU5. CCM and its hallmark vascular malformations are caused by inherited or somatic mutations in any of three genes involved in endothelial function: CCM1, CCM2, or CCM3. Approximately 20% of patients have a familial form of CCM that is inherited in an autosomal dominant pattern. Sporadic disease in the remaining population is caused by somatic mutations that arise in the same genes. CCM manifests as vascular malformations of the spinal cord and brain characterized by abnormally enlarged capillary cavities without intervening brain parenchyma. Patients with CCM lesions are at substantial risk for seizures, headaches, progressive neurological deficits and potentially fatal
hemorrhagic stroke. Current non-pharmacologic treatments include microsurgical resection and stereotactic radiosurgery. Given the invasive and risky nature of these interventions, these options are reserved for a subset of patients with significant symptomatology and/or easily accessible lesions. Rebleeds and other negative sequelae of treatment further limit the effectiveness of these interventions. There is no approved pharmacological treatment that affects the rate of growth of CCM lesions or their propensity to bleed or otherwise induce symptoms. CCM can be a severe disease resulting in progressive neurologic impairment and a high risk of death due to hemorrhagic stroke.
Figure 46. Vascular malformations (cavernomas) in the brain of a CCM patient.13
Insight from Recursion OS
CCM2 knock-down in human endothelial cells reveal pronounced structural and functional phenotypes that are distinct from healthy cells. We hypothesized that these observed structural changes could be used to enable unbiased drug discovery. Fluorescent microscopy and automated cellular quantification and profiling software enabled high throughput analysis. More than 2,000 commercially available and known chemical entities were rapidly evaluated with this strategy based on the hypothesis that hits from this library could be more quickly translated to the clinic. The novel use of REC-994 for CCM was discovered leveraging this early form of the Recursion OS. The exciting aspect of this novel, unbiased approach was that the drug candidates chosen using automated software analysis outperformed those chosen by human analysis in subsequent orthogonal screens.
13 Cooper, AD. et al. (2008). Susceptibility-weighted imaging in familial cerebral cavernous malformations. Neurology, 71, 382.
Figure 47: Rescue of structural phenotypes associated with loss of CCM2. Immunofluorescence images of endothelial cells treated with siCTRL, siCCM2, or siCCM2 treated with REC-994 stained for DNA (blue), actin (green) and VE-cadherin (red). According to a machine learning classifier trained on images, REC-994 shows image-based rescue.
REC-994 is a small molecule therapeutic designed to alleviate neurological symptoms associated with CCM and potentially reduce the accumulation of new lesions. REC-994 is an orally bioavailable superoxide scavenger with pharmacokinetics supporting once-daily dosing in humans. The putative mechanism of action of REC-994 is through reduction of reactive oxygen species and decreased oxidative stress that leads to stabilization of endothelial barrier function. In addition, REC-994 exhibits anti-inflammatory properties which could be beneficial in reducing disease-associated pathology.
Figure 48. REC-994 mechanism of action and proposed potential therapeutic impact.
The activity of REC-994 as a potential treatment for CCM was further confirmed in orthogonal functional assays and in acute and chronic in vivo models. REC-994 demonstrated benefit on acute to subacute disease-relevant hemodynamic parameters such as vascular dynamics and vascular permeability. Chronic administration of REC-994 was also tested in two endothelial-specific knockout mouse models for the two most prevalent genetic causes, CCM1 and CCM2. These mouse models faithfully recapitulate the CNS cavernous malformations of the human disease. Mice treated with REC-994 demonstrated a decrease in lesion number and/or size compared to vehicle treated controls. Notably, 24-hour circulating plasma levels of REC-994 in this in vivo experiment were consistent with exposures seen in humans at a 200 mg daily dose.
Figure 49. REC-994 rescues acetylcholine-induced vasodilation defect and dermal permeability defect in Ccm2 endothelial specific knockout mice.14
Figure 50. REC-994 reduces lesion severity in chronic mouse models of CCM Disease. Mice treated with REC-994 demonstrated a statistically significant decrease in the number of small-size lesions, with a trend toward a decrease in the number of mid-size lesions.14
We conducted a Phase 1 Single Ascending Dose (SAD) study in 32 healthy human volunteers using active pharmaceutical ingredients with no excipients in a powder-in-bottle (PIB) dosage form. Results showed that systemic exposure (Cmax and AUC) generally increased in proportion to REC-994 dose after both single and multiple doses. Median Tmax and t1/2 appeared to be independent of dose. There were no deaths or SAEs reported during this study and no TEAEs that led to the withdrawal of subjects from the study. These data supported a MAD study in healthy human volunteers.
A subsequent Phase 1 Multiple Ascending Dose (MAD) study was conducted in 52 healthy human volunteers and was designed to investigate the safety, tolerability and PK of multiple oral doses of REC-994, to bridge from the PIB
14 Gibson, et al. (2015). Strategy for identifying repurposed drugs for the treatment of cerebral cavernous malformation. Circulation, 131(3), 289-99.
dosage form to a tablet dosage form, as well as to assess the effect of food on PK following a single oral dose. Overall, multiple oral doses of REC-994 were well tolerated in healthy male and female subjects at each dose level administered in this study. There appeared to be no dose-related trends in TEAEs, vital signs, ECGs, pulse oximetry, physical examination findings, or neurological examination findings. Pharmacokinetic results support once-daily oral dosing with the tablet formulation.
Table 3. Summary of Adverse Events from Phase 1 Multiple Ascending Dose Study. AE=adverse event; MAD=multiple ascending dose; SAE=serious adverse event; TEAE=treatment-emergent adverse event.
A two-part Phase 2 study is underway. Part 1 is a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial to investigate the safety, efficacy and PK of daily doses of REC-994 (200 mg and 400 mg) compared to placebo in participants with symptomatic CCM over a treatment period of 12 months. Part 2 is an optional, double-blind, long-term extension (LTE) study of daily doses of REC-994 (200 mg and 400 mg) for participants completing Part 1 of the study. Currently, there is no development or regulatory precedent or pathway for CCM drug development. Results from the ongoing Phase 2 study are expected to inform a pivotal trial design with guidance from the FDA.
Figure 51. Phase 2 clinical trial schematic for REC-994. Phase 2 trial design to assess the efficacy and safety of REC-994 in patients with symptomatic CCM. Enrollment criteria includes MRI-confirmed lesion(s), diagnosis of familial or sporadic CCM and having symptoms directly related to CCM. Primary outcome measures are safety and
tolerability. Secondary measures are focused on efficacy, including clinician-measured outcomes, imaging of CCM lesions, acute stroke scales and patient reported outcomes.
To our knowledge, the REC-994 program is the only industry-sponsored therapeutic program in clinical trials for CCM. If approved, REC-994 would be the first pharmacologic disease-modifying treatment for CCM, one of the largest areas of unmet need in the rare disease space. Other ongoing research includes an investigator-initiated study of a marketed therapeutic and a preclinical industry-sponsored program.
•Investigators at the University of Chicago are evaluating the efficacy of atorvastatin, or Lipitor, on reduction in hemorrhage rate in patients with CCM. As of February 2023, the phase 1/2 randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blinded, single-site clinical trial is ongoing with an estimated study completion date of June, 2025.
•Neurelis is currently in preclinical development of NRL-1049, a repurposed ROCKi to potentially reduce the accumulation of new lesions and alleviate neurological symptoms in patients with CCM.
REC-2282 for Neurofibromatosis Type 2 - Phase 2/3
REC-2282 is a small molecule HDAC inhibitor being developed for the treatment of NF2-mutant meningiomas. In previous clinical studies, the molecule has been well tolerated, including in patients dosed for multiple years, and potentially reduced cardiac toxicity that differentiates it from other HDAC inhibitors. In contrast to approved HDAC inhibitors, REC-2282 is both CNS-penetrant and orally bioavailable. An adaptive, Phase 2/3, randomized, multicenter study is underway. Orphan Drug Designation in the US and EU as well as Fast Track Designation in the US have been granted. We expect to share a Phase 2 interim safety analysis in 2024.
Neurofibromatosis type 2 (NF2) is an autosomal dominant, inherited, rare, tumor syndrome that predisposes affected individuals to multiple nervous system tumors, the most common of which are bilateral vestibular schwannomas, intracranial meningiomas, spinal meningiomas and other spine tumors such as ependymomas.
Approximately one-half of individuals with NF2 have meningiomas and most of these individuals will have multiple meningiomas. In patients with NF2 the incidence of meningiomas increases with age, and lifetime risk may be as high as 75%. Combined, we believe NF2-driven meningiomas occur in approximately 33,000 patients per year in the US and EU5. Patients with NF2 are diagnosed typically in their late teens or early 20s and present with hearing loss which is usually unilateral at the time of onset, focal neurological deficits and symptoms relating to increasing intracranial pressure.
Although most meningiomas are benign their location often makes complete resection untenable, and subsequently patients with NF2 experience loss of hearing, facial paralysis, poor balance and visual difficulty. Spinal tumors can result in weakness and disability and some patients become wheelchair bound. Many patients with multi-tumor disease die in early adulthood. Due to the catastrophic nature of the disease and lack of non-surgical options for management, new approaches to treatment are needed, particularly those directed toward shrinking tumor burden.
Insight from Recursion OS
To select REC-2282 for our NF2 program, we employed our brute-force approach by developing a high content phenotypic screen to identify cellular and structural changes associated with the genetic knockdown of NF2 by siRNA in HUVEC cells. Transfected NF2-deficient cells were treated with thousands of compounds to discover molecules that restored the structural defects associated with loss of NF2. REC-2282 reversed this complex cellular phenotype back to a healthy state (wildtype) in four independent screens at concentrations between 0.1 to 1 μM, in line with efficacious concentration levels in our preclinical experiments. Additionally, REC-2282 failed to exhibit the same level of dose dependent rescue in the evaluation of hundreds of other tumor suppressor or oncogene knockdown models, providing further evidence of a selective effect in the specific context of NF2 loss of function. Together, these experiments demonstrated robust and reproducible activity in disease relevant settings suggesting the therapeutic potential of REC-2282 in treating NF2-mutant tumors.
Figure 52. REC-2282 rescued the loss of NF2. A) Immunofluorescent images of human endothelial cells treated with siRNA control or siRNA NF2. B) REC-2282 rescued the high-dimensional disease phenotype as evidenced with a left shift from the disease to the healthy state. HUVEC, human umbilical vein endothelial cells; NF2, neurofibromatosis type 2; siRNA, small interfering RNA.
REC-2282, is an orally bioavailable, CNS-penetrating, pan-histone deacetylase, or HDAC, inhibitor with PI3K/AKT/mTOR pathway modulatory activity. By comparison to marketed HDAC inhibitors, REC-2282 is uniquely suited for patients with NF2 and NF2-mutant CNS tumors, due to its oral bioavailability, CNS-exposure and lack of cardiovascular liabilities.
Figure 53. REC-2282 would be a first-in-class HDAC inhibitor for the potential treatment of NF2 meningiomas. We believe REC-2282 is well suited for NF2 vs other HDAC inhibitors due to its oral bioavailability and CNS-exposure.15,16,17
NF2 disease is driven by mutations in the NF2 gene, which encodes an important cell signaling modulator, merlin. Loss of merlin results in activation of multiple signaling pathways converging on PI3K/AKT/mTOR among others and results in enhanced cell proliferation. Anti-neoplastic effects of HDAC inhibitors, like REC-2282, are thought to derive primarily via disruption of the protein phosphatase 1 (PP1)-HDAC interaction, and the subsequent inhibition of PI3K/AKT signaling leading to growth arrest and apoptosis of cancer cells.
We obtained a global license for REC-2282 from the Ohio State Innovation Foundation in December 2018. Orphan drug designation for REC-2282 in NF2 has been granted in the US and EU. Fast Track Designation for REC-2282 in NF2-mutated meningioma was granted in the US in 2021.
15 Sborov, D.W et al. (2017) A phase 1 trial of the HDAC inhibitor AR-42 in patients with multiple myeloma and T- and B-cell lymphomas. Leuk Lymphoma, 58(10), 2310-2318.
16 Collier KA, et al. (2021). A phase 1 trial of the histone deacetylase inhibitor AR-42 in patients with neurofibromatosis type 2-associated tumors and advanced solid malignancies. Cancer Chemother Pharmacol. 87(5), 599-611.
17 Prescribing Information of Vorinostat/Belinostat/Romidepsin respectively.
Figure 54. REC-2282 acts on an important pathway in tumor development to inhibit the growth of tumor cells. A potential mechanism of action of REC-2282 in NF2.18
After we discovered the novel use of REC-2282 for NF2 using our platform, we performed a literature search to better understand the molecule and validate disease models. REC-2282 has been shown to be pharmacologically active in various cancer cell lines and mouse xenograft models. REC-2282 had been shown to inhibit in vitro proliferation of vestibular schwannoma, or VS, and meningioma cells by inducing cell cycle arrest and apoptosis at doses that correlate with AKT inactivation. In preclinical models, REC-2282 inhibited the growth of primary human VS and Nf2-deficient mouse schwannoma cells, as well as primary patient-derived meningioma cells and the benign meningioma cell line, Ben-Men-1.
In animal models of NF2, REC-2282 suppressed in vivo tumor growth of an Nf2-deficient mouse vestibular schwannoma allograft. In addition, REC-2282 suppressed in vivo tumor growth of human vestibular schwannoma xenograft models in mice fed chow formulated to deliver 25 mg/kg/day REC-2282 for 45 days. REC-2282 also suppressed the growth of meningioma cells in an orthotopic mouse model of NF2-deficient meningioma that contained luciferase-expressing Ben-Men-1 meningioma cells. These animal data served as a functional and orthogonal validation of our platform findings.
18 Adapted from Petrilli and Fernández-Valle. (2016). Role of Merlin/NF2 inactivation in tumor biology. Oncogene, 35(5), 537-48.
Figure 55. REC-2282 shrinks vestibular schwannoma xenografts in SCID-ICR mice and prevents growth & regrowth of tumors in the NF2-deficient meningioma mouse model. (A) Change in VS tumor volume for each control mouse, demonstrating a mean 6% increase. (B) REC-2282 significantly reduces the mean size of VS tumor volume by ~28% across SCID-ICR mice implanted with VS xenografts. Error bars shown are the 95% CI. P=0.006. C) REC-2282 also suppressed the growth of Ben-Men-1-LucB tumor xenografts as measured by tumor bioluminescence.19,20
Four Investigator-Sponsored Trials (ISTs) of REC-2282 (previously referred to as AR-42) have been completed. In study AR-42-001, REC-2282 was administered as monotherapy. In the other 3 trials, REC-2282 was administered in combination with anti-neoplastic agents: decitabine (AR-42-002), pazopanib (AR-42-003) and pomalidomide (AR 42 004), respectively. In these studies, REC-2282 was given to 77 patients with solid or hematological malignancies in doses ranging from 20 mg to 80 mg three times a week for three weeks followed by one week off-treatment in four-week cycles. Multiple patients were treated for multiple years using this dosing regimen at the 60 mg dose and the longest recorded treatment duration is 4.4 years at the 40 mg dose. The majority of adverse events were transient cytopenia that did not result in dose reduction or stoppage. The MTD in patients with solid tumors was determined to be 60 mg. The REC-2282 plasma exposure in patients with hematological malignancies and solid tumors generally increased with increasing doses. There were no consistent signs of plasma REC-2282 accumulation across a 19-day administration period nor obvious differences in PK between hematologic and solid tumor patients.
In another early Phase 1 pharmacodynamic IST conducted by Ohio State University, it appeared that REC-2282 suppressed aberrant activation of ERK, AKT and S6 pathways in vestibular schwannomas from adult patients undergoing tumor resection. These results may be difficult to achieve with single pathway inhibitors of ALK or MEK.
Recursion is currently conducting an adaptive, Phase 2/3, randomized, multicenter study to evaluate the efficacy and safety of REC-2282 in patients with progressive NF2-mutated meningiomas with underlying NF2 disease and sporadic meningiomas with documented NF2 mutations. The study is designed to accelerate the path to potential product registration by allowing for initiation of a confirmatory Phase 3 study prior to full completion of Phase 2. It is a combined Phase 2/3 study design, beginning with a Proof-of-Concept Phase 2 portion in which 20 adult subjects and up to nine adolescent subjects will begin treatment on two active dose arms. Subject safety will be monitored by an independent Data Monitoring Committee, which will apply dose modification and stopping rules as indicated. After all 20 adult subjects have completed six months of treatment, an interim analysis will be performed for the purpose of 1) determination of go/no-go criteria for Phase 3 portion of the study, 2) selection of the dose(s) to carry forward, 3) re-estimation of sample size for the planned Phase 3 and 4) agreement from FDA to initiate Phase 3. Subjects in the Phase 2 portion will continue treatment for up to 26 months total and then have the option to enroll in an Extension study. The Phase 3 portion currently requires recruitment of an additional 60 subjects (adult and potentially adolescent subjects), who will receive treatment for up to 26 months. The planned primary endpoint is Progression-Free Survival (PFS).
19 Adapted from Jacob A, et al. (2012). Triological Society Thesis Preclinical Validation of AR42, a Novel Histone Deacetylase Inhibitor, as Treatment for Vestibular Schwannomas. Laryngoscope, 122(1), 174-189.
20 Burns SS, et al. (2013). Histone Deacetylase Inhibitor AR-42 Differentially Affects Cell-cycle Transit in Meningeal and Meningioma Cells, Potently Inhibiting NF2-Deficient Meningioma Growth. Cancer Res; 73(2), 792-803.
Figure 56. Phase 2/3 clinical study for REC-2282. Phase 2/3 study design to assess the efficacy and safety of REC-2282 in patients with progressive NF2-mutated meningiomas. Enrollment criteria include MRI-confirmed progressive meningioma and either (1) sporadic meningiomas with confirmed NF2 mutation or (2) confirmed diagnosis of NF2 disease. The primary outcome measure for the phase 2 portion of the study is safety and tolerability. Primary endpoint for the phase 3 portion of the study is Progression-Free Survival (PFS).
There are currently five active programs in clinical development targeting NF2-driven brain tumors.
•Brigatinib, an approved ALK inhibitor for NSCLC from Takeda Pharmaceuticals, is in Phase 2 for NF2 disease meningioma, vestibular schwannoma and ependymoma.
•Crizotinib, an ALK/ROS1 inhibitor, is being studied in an investigator sponsored Phase 2 study in progressive vestibular schwannoma in NF2 patients.
•Selumetinib, a MEK inhibitor from AstraZeneca, is being studied in a Phase 2 study for NF2 related tumors.
•GSK2256098, a FAK inhibitor from GlaxoSmithKline, is being studied in a basket Phase 2 for meningiomas with a variety of targeted therapies and genetic alterations, including NF2 mutation.
•IK-930, a TEAD inhibitor from Ikena Oncology, is being studied in a basket Phase 1 for advanced solid tumors driven by hippo signaling, including patients with NF2 mutations.
REC-4881 for Familial Adenomatous Polyposis (FAP) - Phase 2
REC-4881 is an orally bioavailable, non-ATP-competitive allosteric small molecule inhibitor of MEK1 and MEK2 being developed to reduce polyp burden and progression to adenocarcinoma in FAP patients. REC-4881 has been
well tolerated in prior clinical studies. A Phase 2, double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled study is underway. Orphan Drug Designation in the US and EU as well as Fast Track Designation in the US have been granted.
FAP is a rare tumor predisposition syndrome affecting approximately 50,000 patients in the US and EU5 with no approved therapies. FAP is a genetic disorder resulting from a heterogeneous spectrum of point mutations in the adenomatous polyposis coli (APC) gene. The APC gene is a tumor suppressor gene which encodes a negative regulator of the Wnt signaling pathway.
FAP is characterized by progressive development of hundreds to thousands of adenomatous polyps in the lower gastrointestinal tract, mainly in the colon and rectum, and is associated with up to a 100% lifetime risk of colorectal cancer before age 40, if left untreated. Standard of care for patients with FAP is colectomy in late teenage years. Without surgical intervention, affected patients will progress to colorectal cancer by early adulthood. Post-colectomy, patients receive endoscopic surveillance every 6-12 months to monitor disease progression given the ongoing risk of malignant transformation.
Despite removing the main at-risk organ, approximately 50% of patients will develop adenomatous lesions in the neo-rectum. Once endoscopic management is no longer sufficient, additional surgical procedures are required. Similarly, these patients also develop duodenal (particularly ampullary) adenomas which also require endoscopic management. In the presence of larger adenomas and evidence of carcinoma, patients require additional localized surgery, including radical Whipple procedures. There are currently no approved therapies for FAP.
Insights from Recursion OS
The novel use of REC-4881 for FAP was discovered by leveraging knock-down of the FAP disease gene APC in human cells using the Recursion OS. To select REC-4881 as a potential therapeutic for FAP, Recursion developed a high content phenotypic screen to identify cellular and structural changes associated with knockdown of APC using small interfering RNA (siRNA) in osteosarcoma U2OS cells. Using machine vision and automated analysis software, Recursion quantified hundreds of cellular parameters associated with APC knockdown. This complex phenotype was used as the basis for a chemical screen of more than 3,000 known drugs and bioactive compounds, revealing several RAF and MEK inhibitors, including REC-4881, which reversed the structural defects associated with loss of APC. REC-4881 exhibited highly specific and potent reversal of cellular phenotypes when compared to the MEK inhibitors selumetinib and binimetinib.
Figure 57. REC-4881 rescued phenotypic defects of cells with APC knockdown. Compared to thousands of other molecules tested, REC-4881 rescued phenotypic defects substantially better (including better rescue than other MEK inhibitors) for APC-specific knockdown.
REC-4881 is an orally bioavailable, non-ATP-competitive allosteric small molecule inhibitor of MEK1 and MEK2 (IC50 2-3 nM and 3-5 nM, respectively) that is being developed to reduce polyp burden and progression to adenocarcinoma in FAP patients. We obtained a global license for REC-4881 from Takeda Pharmaceuticals
(TAK-733) in May 2020. Orphan drug designation for REC-4881 in FAP and APC-driven tumors was granted by the FDA in 2021.
FAP is driven by loss of function of APC, which is a critical component of the β-catenin destruction complex, leading to aberrant activation of the Wnt pathway. This Wnt-on state can lead to RAS stabilization, activation of the RAS/ERK pathway and the activation of MYC, leading to cell proliferation and survival - including the growth of adenomas seen in FAP. REC-4881 inhibits MEK1/2 thereby inhibiting ERK activation, decreasing MYC activity, restoring cells back to a Wnt-off state and inhibiting cell proliferation.
Lending further support for the use of MEK inhibitors in FAP, studies have shown that ERK signaling is activated in adenoma epithelial cells and tumor stromal cells, including fibroblasts and vascular endothelial cells. In addition, genomic events resulting in alteration of mitogen-activated protein kinase signaling, such as activating mutations in KRAS, are frequent somatic events that promote the growth of adenomas in FAP. Overall, suppression of aberrant MAPK signaling in adenomas of FAP with REC-4881 has the potential to regress or slow the growth of these tumors by acting on core pathways driving their growth.
Figure 58. REC-4881 inhibits APC-mutation induced MAPK signaling to block cell proliferation in the context of FAP. A potential mechanism of action of REC-4881 in cells with loss of function mutations in APC.21
We validated the findings from the initial phenotypic screens using tumor cell lines and spheroids grown from human epithelial tumor cells with a mutation in APC. REC-4881 inhibited both the growth and organization of spheroids in these models and, in tumor cell lines, had well over a 1,000-fold selectivity range in cells harboring APC mutations.
We subsequently evaluated REC-4881 in a disease relevant preclinical model of FAP. Mice harboring truncated Apc, or ApcMin, were treated with multiple oral daily doses of REC-4881 or celecoxib (as a comparator) over an eight-week period. Mice treated with celecoxib had approximately 30% fewer polyps than did those treated with vehicle, whereas mice treated with 1 mg/kg or 3 mg/kg REC-4881 exhibited approximately 50% fewer polyps than
21 Jeon, WJ, et al. (2018). Interaction between Wnt/β-catenin and RAS-ERK pathways and an anti-cancer strategy via degradations of β-catenin and RAS by targeting the Wnt/β-catenin pathway. npj Precision Oncology, 2(5).
vehicle-treated mice. Mice that were treated with 10 mg/kg REC-4881, the highest dose tested, exhibited an approximately 70% reduction in total polyps.
In FAP, polyps arising from mutations in APC may progress to high-grade adenomas through accumulation of additional mutations and eventually to malignant cancers. To evaluate the activity of REC-4881 on both benign polyps and advanced adenomas, gastrointestinal tissues from mice treated with REC-4881 were histologically evaluated and polyps were classified as either benign or high-grade adenomas. While celecoxib reduced the growth of benign polyps in the model, a large proportion of polyps that remained were dysplastic. By contrast, treatment with REC-4881 specifically reduced not only benign polyps, but also precancerous high-grade adenomas, a finding with the potential for translational significance.
Figure 59. REC-4881 reduces GI polyp count and high grade adenomas in the ApcMin mouse model of FAP. GI polyp count (left panel) and the percent of high grade adenomas (right panel) after oral administration of indicated dose of REC-4881, celecoxib, or vehicle control for 8 weeks. Polyp count at the start of dosing reflects animals sacrificed at the start of study (15 weeks of age). P < 0.001 for all REC-4881 treatment groups versus vehicle control. Quantification of high-grade adenomas versus total polyps was based on blinded histological review by a pathologist. While celecoxib reduces benign polyps, the majority of remaining lesions are high grade adenomas. By contrast, REC-4881 reduces both polyps and high-grade adenomas.
In the Phase 1 dose escalation study previously conducted by Millenium Pharmaceuticals in 51 participants with non-hematologic malignancies (Study C20001), TAK-733 (REC-4881) was administered in the dose range of 0.2 mg QD to 22 mg QD for 21 days. The maximum tolerated dose (MTD) was determined to be 16 mg QD in this study. In this study, REC 4881 exposures increased in a less than dose-proportional manner.
The most commonly reported AEs were rashes, with rash of any type reported in 34 participants (67%); 4 of the 7 participants who discontinued study drug treatment due to an AE discontinued for rash or some type of skin condition. Fourteen (27%) participants experienced at least 1 treatment-emergent SAE; the only SAEs that occurred in more than 1 participant were metastatic melanoma (3 participants; 6%), pulmonary embolism (2; 4%) and anemia (2; 4%). Five participants died during the study; all deaths were due to disease progression.
REC-4881-101 was a safety and PK study conducted by Recursion in healthy volunteers to confirm comparability of REC-4881 with TAK-733. Twenty-five (25) healthy participants, separated into 2 cohorts, were exposed to single doses of REC-4881 4 mg and 8 mg (under fed and fasting conditions) and single doses of REC-4881 12 mg (under fasting conditions). Each cohort received single doses of study drug across 3 study periods with each period separated by 14 days.
REC-4881 was generally well tolerated. No deaths or SAEs were reported during the study. For both cohorts, the percentage of participants reporting TEAEs was comparable between participants who received REC-4881 and placebo. No apparent relationship with the dose of REC-4881 or food conditions was observed. All TEAEs were
assessed by the Investigator as being of Grade 1 severity except 1 (blurred vision reported with 4 mg REC-4881/fed). Two additional participants reported treatment-related eye disorders (blurred vision in both eyes in 1 participant with 8 mg REC-4881/fasted and vitreous floaters in 1 participant with 12 mg REC-4881/fasted). In all instances, the symptoms resolved. Notably, no instance of QTcF abnormality (change from baseline or prolongation) was noted in these healthy participants.
A Phase 2, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study to evaluate efficacy, safety and pharmacokinetics of REC-4881 in classical FAP patients is underway. The study is being conducted in two parts. Part 1 will evaluate the PK, safety, tolerability and PD in participants with FAP following administration of REC-4881 in single and multiple doses. Part 2 will assess the efficacy, safety, PK and PD following administration of once daily doses of REC-4881 to participants with FAP who have previously undergone a colectomy/proctocolectomy and have a confirmed germline APC mutation. Study drug will be administered orally for 6 months. Recent protocol amendments were aimed at enhancing the quality and pace of the trial.
Figure 60. Phase 2 clinical study for REC-4881. Phase 2 clinical study to assess the efficacy, safety and pharmacokinetics of REC-4881 in patients with classical FAP. Enrollment criteria include (1) Confirmed APC mutation; (2) Post-colectomy/proctocolectomy; (3) No GI cancer; (4) Polyps in duodenum (including ampulla of Vater and/or rectum/pouch). Outcome measures: PK, safety, tolerability, preliminary efficacy (change from baseline in polyp burden, histological grade, extent of desmoid disease).
There are four primary therapeutic approaches in clinical development for FAP; all are focused on reduction in colorectal polyposis.
•Guselkumab (Tremfya) is an IL-23 human monoclonal antibody, or mAb, that recently completed Phase 1b development in March 2022 by Janssen Pharmaceuticals. It is hypothesized to reduce cytokine production, inflammation and rectal/pouch polyp burden in patients with FAP.
•Eicosapentaenoic acid-free fatty acid is a polyunsaturated fatty acid currently in Phase 3 development for FAP by S.L.A. Pharma AG. Eicosapentaenoic acid-free fatty acid is hypothesized to reduce polyp formation due to its activity as a competitive inhibitor of arachidonic acid oxidation.
•A combination of eflornithine (CPP-1X) and sulindac (Flynpovi) is in development by Cancer Prevention Pharma for FAP and, in a recent Phase 3 study, the incidence of disease progression with the combination
was not significantly lower than either drug alone. The company submitted an NDA in June 2020, and it remains under review. The company withdrew their MAA application in October 2021.
•Encapsulated rapamycin, or eRAPA, is currently in Phase 2 development by Emtora Biosciences for FAP and is hypothesized to reduce tumor formation through its inhibitory effect on the mTOR pathway.
REC-4881 for AXIN1 or APC Mutant Cancers - Phase 1b/2
REC-4881 is an orally bioavailable, non-ATP-competitive allosteric small molecule inhibitor of MEK1 and MEK2 being developed for the treatment of AXIN1 or APC mutant cancers. REC-4881 was well tolerated in prior clinical studies, demonstrating dose dependent increases in exposure with no reported ocular toxicities typically associated with this class. We expect to initiate a Phase 1b/2 biomarker enriched basket study across select AXIN1 or APC mutant tumors in early 2024.
AXIN1 and APC function as critical tumor suppressors that form part of the beta-catenin destruction complex, directly and indirectly regulating beta-catenin and RAS levels, respectively, in the cell. Aberrant activation of the Wnt and RAS pathways through inactivating mutations in AXIN1 or APC appears frequently across a wide variety of human cancers with an estimated 65,000 patients in the US and EU5 eligible for treatment. These tumors are often considered clinically aggressive and less sensitive to treatments with chemotherapies and/or immunotherapies, representing a heavily refractory population. Accordingly, there is a substantial need for developing therapeutics for patients harboring mutations in AXIN1 or APC, as these mutations are considered undruggable. There are no treatments specifically approved for AXIN1 or APC mutant cancers.
Insight from Recursion OS
The REC-4881 program for AXIN1 or APC mutant cancers is our first program nominated solely based on our inferential search approach. In our HUVEC map, we discovered that REC-4881 exhibited a phenotypically opposite relationship across clinically relevant doses to the gene knockout of AXIN1, in addition to the previously uncovered relationship with APC. We interpreted this relationship as a second novel insight around this molecule and that the use of REC-4881 could potentially restore the biological consequences driven by AXIN1 or APC loss, found in many cancers.
Two additional insights provided us with conviction in this interpretation:
•AXIN1 and APC are central components of the beta-catenin destruction complex. This destruction complex physiologically regulates the levels of beta-catenin and RAS in cells. As AXIN1 and APC exist together in a complex, they are considered functionally related. Our map revealed a strong degree of phenotypic similarity between the gene knockout of AXIN1 and APC, suggesting that this axis of biology is recapitulated in our high dimensional embedding space.
•Our Phase 2 program for REC-4881 in FAP was initiated using our brute-force screen approach where we discovered a dose dependent cellular restoration from a modeled disease state (APC gene knockdown by siRNA) to a modeled healthy state (wildtype) in the U2OS cell type. Our map imputed a similar phenotypic effect with REC-4881 across doses in HUVEC, suggesting alignment between the brute-force approach and the inferential search approach. These discoveries arose from two different cell contexts, were conducted at different points in time, and under different conditions, robustly validating our interpretation.
Figure 61. Insights from Recursion OS. REC-4881 displays a phenotypic opposite relationship across clinically relevant doses to genetic knockout of AXIN1 and APC in HUVEC.
On the basis of our inference generation from our Recursion OS, we advanced REC-4881 into two PDX mouse studies, focusing on HCC and Ovarian tumors. A PDX clinical trial (PCT) is a population study with PDX models that can be used to assess efficacy and predict responders to treatment in the preclinical setting. Across 29 total PDX models, treatment with single-agent REC-4881 resulted in a significantly better response in AXIN1 or APC mutant models versus wildtype models. These responses led to a significant benefit in PFS (modeled as the time of tumor doubling from baseline), observed specifically in AXIN1 or APC mutant models, providing further evidence of a biomarker driven effect.
Figure 62. Tumor growth inhibition and PFS across 29 PDX mouse models. REC-4881 shows enhanced activity in mouse models with AXIN1 or APC mutant tumors.
We are finalizing the design of a Phase 1b/2 biomarker-enriched clinical trial, and plan to initiate it in select tumor types in early 2024.
There are two investigator-initiated clinical studies ongoing to study cancers with AXIN1 or APC mutations
•MD Anderson investigating DKN-01, an anti-DKK1 monoclonal antibody, in combination with pembrolizumab for the treatment of endometrial cancers, including non-endometrioid histologies with Wnt activating mutations such as AXIN1 and APC.
•The University of Utah is investigating cetuximab, an anti-EGFR monoclonal antibody, for the treatment of third line colorectal cancers harboring mutations in APC, TP53 and RAS.
To our knowledge, REC-4881 is the only industry sponsored small molecule therapeutic designed to enroll solid tumor patients harboring mutations in AXIN1 or APC.
REC 3964 for Clostridioides difficile Infection - Phase 1
REC-3964 is an orally active, small molecule inhibitor of C. difficile glucosyltransferase. This molecule has the potential to prevent recurrent disease and be used as secondary prophylaxis therapy in high-risk patients with C. difficile infections, a leading cause of antibiotic-induced diarrhea and a major cause of morbidity and mortality. A Phase 1 study in healthy volunteers is underway. We expect to share safety and PK data in 2H 2023.
C. difficile-induced diarrhea is a leading cause of antibiotic-induced diarrhea and arises from the disruption of normal bacterial flora in the colon. Toxins A, or TcdA, and B, or TcdB, secreted by the bacterium are responsible for considerable morbidity, including severe diarrhea, colitis, toxic megacolon, sepsis, extended hospital stays and potentially, death. More than 730,000 patients are diagnosed in the US and EU5 each year. Recurrence of disease occurs in 20-30% of patients treated with standard of care. Standard of care includes antibiotic therapies which can further impair gut flora and lead to relapse.
Insight Recursion OS
REC-3964 is a new chemical entity that was identified with our brute-force approach which utilized phenomics to identify cellular and structural changes in epithelial cells associated with the pathological changes resulting from exposure to C. difficile toxins. Structure-activity-relationship (SAR) was driven through the Recursion OS to identify structural series that restored structural defects resulting from C. difficile toxins’ effects. REC-3964 was identified from a lead benzodiazepinedione structural series that confers selective antagonism against the C. difficile toxins’ effects with nanomolar potency on our platform, and dose dependent cellular restoration to a modeled healthy state in human endothelial cells.
Figure 63. REC-3964 rescued the phenotype of human epithelial cells treated with C. difficile toxin. REC-3964 was identified as demonstrating strong dose-responsive rescue in HUVEC cells treated with C. difficile toxin b on Recursion’s phenomics platform.
We aim to develop REC-3964 as the first safe and efficacious, orally bioavailable, small molecule toxin inhibitor of C. difficile, which could be used to prevent recurrent disease and potentially used as secondary prophylaxis in high-risk patients, including elderly immunocompromised patients in long-term care facilities who have a history of related infections and hospitalizations. In addition, this molecule represents a novel mechanism that could be used in combination with currently approved and novel antimicrobials in development for this disease. Unlike antibiotic treatments that can eliminate the gut microbiota and further enhance C. difficile infection, this toxin-targeted mechanism would not be expected to negatively impact the gut microbiome. REC-3964 could have the potential to offer protection against recurrent C. difficile infections, thereby preventing significant morbidity and mortality.
REC-3964 was validated in orthogonal functional assays including the Electrical Cell-substrate Impedance Sensing (ECIS) assay where it demonstrated concentration-dependent activity in blocking toxin-mediated barrier disruption. We have shown in a target-based validation assay that REC-3964 selectively inhibits the toxin’s innate glucosyltransferase (IC50 = 1.2-10 nM), suggesting suppression of toxin-induced glycosylation of Rho-GTPases in host cells as the most likely mode of action. REC-3964 has negligible off-target activity, does not target the host’s glucosyltransferases, produces favorable gut and plasma exposure levels following oral dosing, and is non-mutagenic. Further, in an in vivo hamster model of C.Difficile infection, treatment with REC-3964 significantly prolonged the survival of animals relative to vehicle-treated controls.
Figure 64. REC-3964 blocks C. difficile Toxin B-mediated endothelial barrier disruption. Transendothelial resistance was quantified with ECIS after incubation of HUVEC cells with 10ng/mL TcdB from C. difficile in the presence of REC-3964. Barrier resistance is shown on a normalized scale with 0% representing the resistance in the absence of REC-3964, and 100% representing the resistance of healthy monolayers that were not exposed to toxin B. Data are presented as Mean ± SEM, N≥3 independent experiments.
Figure 65. C. difficile-infected model hamsters treated with REC-3964 survive longer than vehicle-treated animals. REC-3964 was administered by oral gavage twice daily for 5 consecutive days along with groups for vehicle and vancomycin (50 mg/kg, QD). N=5 in untreated and vancomycin-treated animals and N=10 in vehicle and test-compound treated animals.
Figure 66. REC-3964 selectively inhibits the toxin’s innate UDP-glucose glucosyltransferase. (A) Autocatalytic event releases C. difficile toxin’s glucosyltransferase enzymatic domain into the infected cell, which locks Rho family GTPases in the inactive state. Inactivation of Rho GTPases alters cytoskeletal dynamics, induces apoptosis and impairs barrier function which drives the pathological effects of C. difficile infection. (B) REC-3964 binds and blocks catalytic activity of the toxin’s innate glucosyltransferase with no effect on the host protein.22
REC-3964 has completed IND-enabling safety studies. A Phase 1 first-in-human SAD/MAD clinical study in healthy volunteers is underway. We expect to share safety and PK data in 2H 2023.
The following therapeutics are approved to treat C. difficile infection:
•The current standard of care for treating C. difficile infection is the oral antibiotic vancomycin, according to the 2018 Infectious Diseases Society of America guidelines for the diagnosis and management of C. difficile infection.
•Metronidazole is an antibiotic that can be administered orally or IV. It is not prescribed as frequently as other approved therapeutics due to its inferior efficacy compared to vancomycin, especially in severe disease.
•Fidaxomicin is an approved antibiotic launched by Merck in 2011. Though guidelines recommend it as first line therapy due to its superior efficacy in treating C. difficile infection and preventing recurrence, it is rarely prescribed.
•Bezlotoxumab is a human monoclonal antibody against C. difficile toxin B. It is administered via an infusion as an adjuvant with vancomycin.
There are currently two fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) potential therapeutics that are anticipated to enter the market in 2023.
•RBX2660 is an enema developed by Ferring/Rebiotix for potentially treating recurrent C. difficile infection in patients who have experienced 2 recurrences. Rbx 2660 was voted for approval by the FDA in November 2022.
22 Awad, MM. et al. (2014). Clostridium difficile virulence factors: Insights into an anaerobic spore-forming pathogen. Gut Microbes. 5(5), 579-593.
•SER-109 is an oral FMT developed by Seres Therapeutics for potentially treating recurrent C. difficile infection in patients who have experienced 2 recurrences. Positive results from the Phase 3 clinical trials were reported in May 2022 and Seres was granted a Priority Review designation with a Prescription Drug User Fee Act action date of April 26, 2023.
Selected Preclinical and Discovery Programs
•Novel CDK12-adjacent target, RBM39, for the potential treatment of HR-proficient ovarian cancer (previously identified as Target Gamma).
•Potential first-in-class novel chemical entity with novel MOA to enhance anti-PD-(L)1 response (Target Alpha).
•Potentiator of anti-PD-(L)1 response in high tumor mutational burden cancers (Target Delta).
•Potential treatment of solid and hematological malignancies using indirect MYC inhibition.
HR-Proficient Ovarian Cancer (Previously Identified as Target Gamma) - Late Discovery
Using inferential-search, we identified compounds that inhibit RBM39 and phenocopy the loss of CDK12, but not CDK13. We further optimized these molecules to generate lead molecules with oral bioavailability that are capable of sensitizing homologous recombination-proficient (HRP) ovarian tumors to PARP inhibitors. There are approximately 13,000 cases per year of HR-proficient ovarian cancers in the US and EU5. While PARP inhibitors have significantly improved outcomes for patients with HR-deficient tumors, patients with HR-proficient tumors are either not eligible for certain PARP-targeted therapies, or have significantly worse response rates. There are currently no approved therapies that sensitize HR-proficient tumors to PARP inhibitors. This program anticipates reaching IND-enabling studies in 2023.
Ovarian cancer carries a particularly poor prognosis as most patients are diagnosed at an advanced stage. Mutations in genes involved in the DNA Damage Repair pathway, including BRCA1/2, are identified in up to 50% of ovarian cancer patients. PARP inhibitors, including olaparib, rucaparib and niraparib, were developed to exploit the resulting susceptibility to additional genomic damage in tumors harboring these mutations. Outcome for ovarian cancer patients with HR-deficient tumors have improved approximately twofold, with even better survival data observed in patients with BRCA1/2 mutant tumors; however, patients with HR-proficient tumors have not similarly benefited from PARP inhibition; these patients often have poorer prognoses and unfavorable outcomes.
Insight from Recursion OS
CDK12 is a critical transcriptional CDK that regulates the expression of genes involved in the DNA Damage Response (DDR). Inhibiting CDK12 sensitizes cancer cells to DDR agents such as PARP inhibitors. Additionally, genome-wide studies suggest that CDK12 deficiency may predict sensitivity to PARP inhibitors in the clinic. As a result CDK12 has been identified as a therapeutic target that can induce synthetic lethality in both HR-deficient and HR-proficient cancers. Discovery of selective CDK12 inhibitors has been challenging as CDK12 and CDK13 share conserved kinase domains. Inhibiting CDK13 may lead to toxicities based on human genetic evidence studies, making combinations difficult to tolerate. Despite reports of functional redundancy, we observed that genetic knockout of CDK12 could be clearly distinguished phenotypically from that of CDK13. We leveraged this insight from the Recursion OS to identify RBM39 as an alternative target that selectively mimics CDK12 loss, but not CDK13, providing a novel approach for targeting CDK12 biology while mitigating toxicities due to CDK13. We subsequently discovered REC-65029 as closely mimicking the phenotypic loss of CDK12 and RBM39, but not CDK13.
Figure 67: Inferred map relationships between CDK12, CDK13, RBM39 and REC-65029. Map representation demonstrating a high degree of phenotypic similarity between CDK12, RBM39 and multiple concentrations of REC-65029. CDK13 shows little or no functional similarity to CDK12, RBM39 or any concentration of REC-65029.
We aim to discover and develop novel, orally bioavailable small molecules that drive de novo sensitivity to PARP inhibitors in HR-proficient tumors. CDK12 inhibition has been proposed as a mechanism to drive sensitivity to PARP in this setting, but the high homology of CDKs makes targeting a single homolog difficult and prone to off-target toxicity. Mimicking the effects of CDK12 inhibition via alternative novel targets could be a route to increase the effectiveness of PARP inhibitors in HR-proficient tumors. We intend to position this agent in combination with PARP inhibitors in HR-proficient ovarian cancer, and potentially explore single agent activity.
In 2022, we evaluated a Recursion-generated NCE molecule REC-1170204 with high phenotypic similarity to REC-65029, the initial small molecule discovered for this program. In vivo efficacy studies evaluated single agent and combination activity with niraparib in OV0273, an ovarian HR-proficient patient derived xenograft (PDX) model. We observed statistically significant responses in both single agent REC-1170204 and combination vs either Niraparib or vehicle arms. We also saw significant survival for animals treated with REC-1170204 alone or in combination with Niraparib at >30 days post final dose. We have identified a lead series and are advancing lead molecules into pilot (rodent and non-rodent species) safety studies while pursuing back-up molecules.
Figure 68. REC-1170204 ± Niraparib inhibits tumor growth in the OV0273 PDX mouse model. In the OV0273 PDX model, mice were treated with a representative lead molecule REC-1170204 (100 mg/kg, BID, PO) ± Niraparib
(40 mg/kg, QD, PO) for 32 days. Single agent REC-1170204 or in combination with Niraparib resulted in a statistically significant response vs either Niraparib or vehicle arms. In addition, there was a statistically significant improvement in survival > 30 days post final dose. *p<0.05, ** p<0.01, **** p<0.0001.
Enhancing Anti-PD-(L)1 Response by Inhibiting Novel Targets (Target Alpha) - Late Discovery
We identified a lead series using our inferential-search approach that is capable of amplifying the response to checkpoint therapy in vivo. A therapy that enhances anti-PD-(L)1 effect has the potential to increase the response rate in anti-PD-(L)1-eligible patients or expand the eligibility criteria of patients not expected to respond to immune checkpoint therapy. Additional priming of tumors can have a significant benefit, as response rates in checkpoint-eligible settings is approximately 12-15%. Furthermore, many tumor types have proven intractable for immunotherapy and could greatly benefit from this approach. Although there are several approved combinations with anti-PD-(L)1, the vast majority of these are combinations with other checkpoint antibodies. These combinations frequently lead to an increase in the presence of immune-related adverse events (IRAEs), thereby causing treatment discontinuation and hindering the overall patient benefit. This program anticipates reaching IND-enabling studies in 2023.
Anti-PD-(L)1 therapies have significantly changed the landscape of cancer therapy over the past ten years. In eligible patients, overall survival has nearly doubled for certain tumors and serious adverse events have nearly halved compared to historical chemotherapies. Despite the use of biomarkers, such as PD-L1 expression and tumor mutation burden (TMB) status, low response rates persist in many checkpoint-eligible settings. Furthermore, next generation checkpoints such as LAG-3 and TIGIT, or strategies to promote secondary immune activation (e.g., STING or dual checkpoint) focus primarily on addressing these efficacy limitations. Yet these newer agents have been shown to amplify IRAEs, leading to treatment reductions and discontinuations. An agent that increases sensitivity to anti-PD-1 therapy without concomitant increases in peripheral inflammation could enhance response rates in under-responsive tumor types and lead to more durable clinical benefits for patients.
Insight from Recursion OS
We mapped 110 genes identified as causal markers of response or resistance to immunotherapy derived from in vivo pooled CRISPR genetic screens in mice. We discovered an interesting novel relationship between BIRC2, other BIRC2 family genes and Gene A, a known modulator of inflammation and a counterintuitive target for enhancing immunotherapy response. We used the Recursion OS to identify both an annotated inhibitor of Gene A, REC-648918, and a second gene, Gene B as a second target of REC-648918, which was independently uncovered as a potential immunotherapy resistance marker.
Figure 69: Inferred map relationships supporting initiation of Target Alpha. (A) Map representation of 110 causal markers of response or resistance to immunotherapy identified from in vivo pooled CRISPR screens in mice.
(B) Cluster of genes including BIRC2, BIRC2 family genes and Gene A, an druggable gene with unexpected clustering in this group. Map relationship between Gene A, an annotated Gene A inhibitor and Gene B.
We aim to discover and develop novel, orally bioavailable small molecules that drive sensitivity to immune checkpoint therapies. We identified an agent that potentiates anti-PD-1 tumor efficacy while decreasing peripheral inflammation compared to anti-PD-(L)1 alone that could both enhance response rates in under-responsive tumor types and decrease IRAEs, likely leading to more durable clinical benefits for patients. We intend to position this therapeutic in combination with anti-PD-(L)1 in both checkpoint-eligible and checkpoint-resistant patients.
In June 2022, we characterized a novel chemical entity, REC-1170035, with significantly increased potency from the original compound, REC-648918. In vivo efficacy was improved in the CT26 tumor model from 40% to 60% complete responses in combination with anti-PD-1 therapy, and all complete responders elicited immunological memory upon rechallenge. REC-1170035 in combination with anti-PD-1 caused significant recruitment of CD45+ cells into the tumor microenvironment, while significantly attenuating the percentage of immunosuppressive, alternatively activated (M2) macrophages and percentage of exhausted, LAG3+, CD8+ T cells. While REC-1170035 maintained local anti-tumor inflammation, the levels of IFNγ and CXCL10 were significantly reduced in the blood as compared to anti-PD-1 therapy alone. Additional chemical optimization efforts for this program have focused on improving human dose projection and pharmacokinetic properties.
Figure 70. REC-1170035 inhibits tumor growth in a mouse CT26 colorectal cancer model in combination with anti-PD-1 without inducing peripheral inflammation. (A) Mice harboring CT26 tumors show 60% complete tumor regressions upon treatment with 100 mpk REC-1170035 in combination with 10 mpk anti-PD-1. (B) Flow cytometric analysis of the CT26 tumor microenvironment following 11 days of dosing. One-way ANOVA and Tukey’s post test, ***p<0.001, ****p<0.0001. (C) Blood levels of CXCL10 (left) and IFNγ (right) in CT26 tumor bearing mice
following 10 days of dosing. Statistical analysis performed using one-way ANOVA and Tukey’s post test against aPD1 alone, **p<0.01, ****p<0.0001.
Potentiator of Anti-PD-(L)1 in High TMB Cancers (Target Delta) - Preclinical
We have identified a novel use for a clinical-stage, orally bioavailable small molecule to improve sensitivity to immune checkpoint inhibitors in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) and additional tumors harboring high TMB including KRAS and p53 mutations. Each year over 150,000 high TMB patients are eligible for treatment in the US and EU5 Although many of these patients receive anti-PD-1 therapy, response rates are highly variable and the need for a chemotherapy-free regimen in the refractory setting remains high in this population. This program is currently in the dose-optimization phase.
While anti-PD-1 therapy is approved for high TMB (greater than or equal to 10 muts/Mb), there is a significant degree of heterogeneity in responses, there remains a significant need for additional therapies to act as single agents or to potentiate the activity of currently approved immunotherapies.
Insight from Recursion OS
Certain loss of function (LoF) mutations in cancer are known to drive immune checkpoint resistance. We hypothesized that agonizing the same targets in a wildtype setting may work to further augment immune sensitivity and response to checkpoint inhibitors. We searched the Recursion OS to identify small molecules that act phenotypically opposite to several loss of function genes and identified Gene A and the compound REC-64151, which is strongly phenotypically opposite to Gene A. On the basis of this inference, we advanced REC-64151 into a non-small cell lung carcinoma (NSCLC) model to determine if it would potentiate the response to anti-PD-1.
Figure 71: Inferred map relationships between Gene A and REC-64151. Map representation demonstrating a high degree of phenotypic opposite between Gene A and REC-64151 at multiple concentrations.
We aim to discover and develop orally bioavailable, small molecule therapeutics that potentiate immunotherapies. We intend to position these therapeutics in combination with anti-PD-(L)1 and other targeted therapies in metastatic NSCLC and other populations with high tumor mutation burden.
We capitalized on our inferential-search approach to identify small molecules that show pheno-opposite relationships to LoF mutations in cancer known to drive immune checkpoint resistance. In Q4 2022, we showed that REC-64151 potentiates anti-PD-1 in a NSCLC model compared to anti-PD-1 alone. All complete responders elicited immunological memory upon rechallenge. We are currently evaluating several molecules with similar mechanisms of action in in vivo efficacy and tolerability studies.
Figure 72. REC-64151 potentiates anti-PD-1 in a high TMB NSCLC model. (A) KP-3M tumor cells were injected into the subcutaneous right flank of mice, allowed to size match and then treated for 25d with either vehicle, anti-PD-1 (10 mg/kg/day BIW), REC-64151 (150 mg/kg/day QD), anti-PD-1 + REC-64151 (at 75 or 150 mg/kg/day QD). Tumor volumes are represented as mean ± SEM. Statistical analysis performed using mixed-effects two way ANOVA and Tukey’s post test against aPD1 alone, **p<0.01, ****p<0.0001, ***p<0.001. (B) When re-challenged with KP-3M tumor cells on the left flank, all mice that achieved CR rejected re-implantation. Statistical analysis performed using two way repeated measures ANOVA and Tukey’s post test against naive age-matched controls, ****p<0.0001.
We have and in the future may collaborate with third parties to broadly explore diverse disease domains (such as fibrosis, neuroscience, oncology, immunology and inflammation) in order to identify novel target insights and potential therapeutics that may include small molecules, large molecules, gene therapies and cell therapies. We may also explore a communal asset-type strategy where we license search results from our phenomaps to partners.
The goal of every partnership is to create therapeutics, yet the approach may take multiple forms:
•Novel Therapeutics. Without any presumptive target hypothesis, we can identify differentiated therapeutics by rapidly evaluating large compound libraries within our maps of human cellular biology.
•Novel Targets. By profiling diverse biological perturbations (such as genetic factors) on our platform, we may be able to identify novel druggable targets that we can then exploit with partners to generate therapeutic candidates.
Roche & Genentech Collaboration and License Agreement
On December 5, 2021, we entered into a Collaboration and License Agreement with Genentech, Inc. and F. Hoffmann-La Roche Ltd, pursuant to which we will construct, using our imaging technology and proprietary machine learning algorithms, unique maps of the inferred relationships amongst perturbation phenotypes in a given cellular context and together with Roche and Genentech will create multi-modal models and maps to further expand and refine such inferred relationships, in both cases with the goal to discover and develop therapeutic small molecule programs in a gastrointestinal cancer indication and in key areas of neuroscience.
Upfront Payment. In January 2022, Roche paid us an upfront cash payment of $150.0 million.
Phenomap Creation, Acceptance and Access. Under the Collaboration Agreement, we are responsible for creating a certain number of phenomaps in each of the Exclusive Fields. We will also provide Roche with limited access to our pre-existing human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC) phenomap. Roche will have specified rights to query or access the phenomaps to generate novel inferences that may lead to the discovery or development of therapeutic products.
Phenomap-Related Options. Each of the phenomaps requested by Roche and created by Recursion may be subject to either an initiation fee, acceptance fee or both. Such fees could exceed $250.0 million for sixteen (16) accepted phenomaps. In addition, for a period of time after Roche’s acceptance of certain phenomaps, Roche will have the option to obtain, subject to payment of an exercise fee, rights to use outside the collaboration the raw images generated in the course of creating those phenomaps. If Roche exercises its External Use Option for all twelve (12) eligible phenomaps, Roche’s associated exercise fee payments to Recursion could exceed $250.0 million.
Collaboration Programs and Roche Options. Roche and Recursion will collaborate to select certain novel inferences with respect to small molecules or targets generated from the phenomaps for further validation and optimization as collaboration programs. Roche and Recursion may also combine sequencing datasets from Roche with Recursion’s phenomaps and collaborate to generate new algorithms to produce multi-modal maps from which additional collaboration programs may be initiated. For every collaboration program that successfully identifies potential therapeutic small molecules or validates a target, Roche will have an option to obtain an exclusive license to develop and commercialize such potential therapeutic small molecules or to exploit such target in the applicable Exclusive Field.
Payments if Roche Exercises Option for a Collaboration Program. Under the collaboration, Roche may initiate up to forty (40) small molecule collaboration programs. Each small molecule collaboration program, if optioned and successfully developed and commercialized by Roche, could yield more than $300.0 million in research, development, commercialization and net sales milestones for Recursion, as well as mid- to high-single digit tiered royalties on net sales. Recursion is also eligible for research, development, commercialization and net sales milestones for target collaboration programs optioned by Roche.
Recursion Programs. If Roche does not exercise its options in the Collaboration Agreement for certain collaboration programs, we may, with Roche’s prior consent, choose to independently validate, develop and commercialize products in a limited number of such programs, subject to agreed milestones and royalties to Roche. Roche will have rights to obtain an exclusive license to exploit such products by providing notice and paying us an opt-in fee and economics exceeding those that would otherwise be applicable if Roche had exercised its option for such program.
Exclusivity. During an agreed period of time after the Collaboration Agreement’s effective date, we are subject to certain exclusivities that limit our ability to conduct certain research and development activities with respect to compounds and targets in the Exclusive Fields, other than pursuant to the collaboration with Roche. However, we may continue pursuing products that we are researching and developing in the Exclusive Fields as of the effective date of the Collaboration Agreement.
Termination. The Collaboration Agreement includes standard termination provisions, including for material breach or insolvency and for Roche’s convenience. Certain of these termination rights can be exercised with respect to a particular Exclusive Field or exclusive license, as well as with respect to the entire Collaboration Agreement.
Figure 73. Under our collaboration with Roche & Genentech, we are creating multimodal maps of cellular biology to elucidate novel targets and starting points.
Bayer AG Research Collaboration and Option Agreement
In August 2020, we entered into a Research Collaboration and Option Agreement, or the Bayer Agreement, with Bayer AG, or Bayer. The Bayer Agreement was subsequently amended in December 2021 to incorporate usage of our biological mapping and navigating tools (inferential search). This agreement has a five-year term pursuant to which we and Bayer may initiate more than a dozen projects related to fibrosis across multiple organ systems, including lung, liver and heart. Under the agreement, we contributed approximately 190,000 compounds from our proprietary library and Bayer contributed approximately 500,000 compounds from its proprietary library and will contribute scientific expertise throughout the collaboration. During the five-year term of the Bayer Agreement, we are prohibited from conducting certain research and development activities in the field of fibrosis outside of the collaboration, either by ourselves or together with third parties.
We received an upfront technology access fee of $30.0 million in September 2020 as part of the Bayer Agreement. Under each research project, we will work with Bayer to identify potential candidates for development. Under the agreement, Bayer has the first option for licenses to potential candidates; each such license could potentially result in option exercise fees and development and commercial milestones paid to us with an aggregate value of up to approximately $100.0 million (for an option on a lead series) or up to approximately $120.0 million (for an option on a development candidate), as well as tiered royalties for each such license, ranging from low- to mid-single-digit percentages of sales, depending on commercial success. Royalty periods for each license are on a country-by-country basis, and the duration of each such period is tied to the duration of patent or regulatory exclusivity in each country (with a minimum term of 10 years each).
If Bayer does not exercise its option with respect to a development candidate or otherwise discontinues a research project prior to completion, within a specified period of time, we may exercise an option to negotiate with Bayer in good faith to obtain an exclusive license under Bayer’s interest in any lead series or development candidate developed pursuant to the research project and backup compounds related to thereto, as well as a non-exclusive license under Bayer’s background intellectual property necessary for our use of the project results related to such compounds.
Bayer may terminate the collaboration at any time without cause. Either party may terminate the agreement for a material breach by the other party. The term of each lead series or development candidate license agreement continues on a product-by-product and country-by-country basis until the later of (a) the expiration of the last to expire valid claim of the licensed patents covering such product in such country, (b) the expiration of any applicable regulatory exclusivity period for such product in such country and (c) ten (10) years after the first commercial sale of such product in such country. Bayer may terminate each such license agreement at any time without cause. Either party may terminate each such license agreement for the other party’s uncured material breach. As of this prospectus, we have not entered into any lead series or development candidate license agreements with Bayer.
Figure 74. Multiple programs are advancing simultaneously in parallel to near-term milestones in the Bayer collaboration. Brute force programs commenced early in the partnership are making substantial progress, while the transition to inferential search accelerated new program initiation in 2022.
People and Culture
Essential to leading and defining TechBio is our growing team of approximately 500 Recursionauts, balanced between life scientists such as chemists and biologists (approximately 40% of employees) and computational and technical experts such as data scientists and software engineers (approximately 35% of employees). This kind of functional balance intentionally stands in contrast to traditional biotechnology companies. Together our team creates an environment where empirical data, statistical rigor and creative thinking is brought to bear on the problems we address. While we are united in a common mission, Decoding Biology to Radically Improve Lives, our greatest strength lies in our differences: expertise, gender, race, disciplines, experience and perspectives. Deliberately building and cultivating this culture is critical to achieving our audacious goals.
Figure 75. Breakdown of Recursion’s approximately 500 employees across life sciences, technology and strategic operations.
One of the most critical elements supporting Recursion’s leadership in TechBio is what we call the Recursion Mindset– a deep belief and commitment to industrialization through automation, systems-thinking, algorithms and data to deliver our mission. Broadly at the company we apply this mindset to eliminate toil and inefficiency creating space for our creative energy to be pointed at Recursion’s hardest problems. The Recursion Mindset is made manifest through our Founding Principles and supported by our Culture and Values. Our Founding Principles are the guideposts to our approach to technical and scientific decision-making. Our Values are the core behaviors that define our Culture and are the simplest definition of how we will achieve our mission. Combined they are the shape of our culture and guide us to reimagine how medicines are made on the path to delivering our mission.
Figure 76. Recursion’s Founding Principles. These six founding principles differentiate our approach from nearly every other biopharma company, enable us to lead TechBio and form the foundation for a mindset we teach and enrich for at Recursion.
Figure 77. Recursion’s Values. These five values support our founding principles and guide our culture at Recursion.
Diversity, Equity, Inclusion and Belonging
At Recursion, we believe in the moral and business case for diversity. The research-based evidence is unequivocal that diverse perspectives support better complex decision-making, foster greater innovation and ultimately result in greater company performance and success. We seek the best talent by maximizing diversity at the top of the recruiting funnel and then mitigating bias through objective decision-making throughout the hiring process. We foster an environment of inclusion for candidates and employees to unleash the strength of our differences. Lastly, acknowledging the breadth of societal injustice and inequities we pursue fair and equitable outcomes across all people-decisions through process design and supported by analytics.
Employee Recruitment, Development and Training
We take a design-thinking approach to building the employee experience at Recursion. It is a fit-for-purpose system that finds, grows and retains top talent to deliver our mission. Our people are mission-driven, humble, bright, generous of spirit and constructively dissatisfied with the status quo. We employ a targeted approach to identify, attract and hire diverse employees across highly-technical scientific disciplines including: biology, chemistry, data science, machine learning, engineering, robotics, clinical development and more. We seek people that are a fit for our commitment to industrialization as defined by our Recursion Mindset, which is manifested in our Founding Principles and Values.
Culturally, we instill an expectation to be constantly learning and teaching in pursuit of growing ourselves as fast as Recursion. Most notable is a 2-day experience offered year-round to all employees called Decoding Recursion. It is an opportunity for close interaction with senior leaders who teach the Recursion Mindset through stories. The need to learn is reinforced throughout our performance system which creates accountability for our learning, delivery and impact on others.
People stay at Recursion because of the opportunity to impact the world and grow in a place where they feel challenged, supported and connected. Throughout the employee experience we create moments, rituals, programs and spaces that inspire ambition, reward contributions and growth and foster belonging.
Employee Health and Safety
We have dedicated Standard Operating Procedures to manage occupational health and safety, safety training and injury and illness and incident reporting. Every employee is responsible to ensure these procedures and policies are followed. We offer extensive training to ensure understanding and compliance. Compliance is mandatory for all laboratory employees per requirements of the Occupational Safety and Health Administration standard on Hazardous Chemicals in Laboratories. Our Co-Founder and CEO is the Director of Public Safety at the company and has the ultimate responsibility for chemical hygiene within the organization. Our Chemical Hygiene Officer and Lab Manager oversees the day-to-day management of institutional chemical hygiene.
Read more about how we invest in and motivate our people to achieve our mission in Recursion’s latest Environmental, Social and Governance Report, available at our corporate website.
In 2018, we moved to our current headquarters which is located in downtown Salt Lake City, Utah. We lease office, research and laboratory space under a lease that expires in May 2028 and have entered into a lease for an additional research and laboratory space that expires in May 2032. Our modern headquarters is a draw for local, national and international talent and houses both traditional and automated laboratories for drug research.
Figure 78. Our headquarters is centrally located in downtown Salt Lake City, Utah. Images of our headquarters in Salt Lake City, Utah. We are a proud founding member of BioHive, the branding effort of the life science hub of Utah. Working with state and local government, we are helping to create a burgeoning life science ecosystem around a downtown cluster of existing and soon to move companies centered around our headquarters.
Satellite Offices and Facilities
Toronto and Montreal. In 2021, we announced plans for our first major international expansion in Toronto. This site serves as a multidisciplinary hub across data science, machine learning, engineering and computational biology and is scheduled to open in 2023. Additionally, we announced a multi-year collaboration with Mila, the Quebec Artificial Intelligence Institute, to accelerate Recursion’s machine learning capabilities, and opened our Montreal site in September 2022.
Figure 79. Recursion’s satellite offices and facilities. Left panel: Mila, the Quebec Artificial Intelligence Institute, is recognized worldwide for its major contributions to AI. Right panel: Our Toronto office is Recursion’s first major expansion project outside of the United States. This site, along with the Mila Montreal office, will serve as multidisciplinary hubs across data science and machine learning.
Digital Vivarium. We lease a property that serves as a rodent vivarium. This lease expires in May 2028. We use this facility to conduct drug-discovery enabling pharmacokinetic, pharmacodynamic and exploratory safety studies. The facility is equipped with proprietary, digitally-enabled cage technology.
Corporate Social Responsibility
We believe that to achieve our mission, we must act like the company we aim to be, which means we must be a good corporate citizen. In recognition of our commitment to excellence in environment, social and governance, Recursion received a Prime Rating in 2022 for ESG performance from Institutional Shareholder Services (ISS). The ISS ESG Corporate Rating provides an assessment of a company's environmental, social and governance activity. A Prime Rating is awarded to companies with ESG performance above a sector-specific threshold and is defined by ISS as "absolute best in class". Additionally, as of October 2022, Recursion was ranked 98 out of over 850 companies (approximately top 10%) in the pharmaceutical category by Morningstar Sustainalytics23 which gives an in-depth analysis of a company’s ESG performance and compares it to industry peers.
To date, we have focused our community efforts in areas of impact that are aligned with our Values and our strengths, including: (i) diversity, equity and inclusion in technology and biotechnology (e.g., the Recursion Foundation has partnered with the University of Utah to sponsor Altitude Lab, a life science incubator and accelerator for diverse health care entrepreneurs); (ii) the growth and sustainability of our local life science and technology ecosystems (e.g., Recursion is a founding member of BioHive, a Utah life science collective); and (iii) the promotion of sustainable environmental practices. We believe that through these principles of community engagement, we can extend our mission of radically improving lives to those in our communities.
Read more about how we are delivering on that belief in Recursion’s Environmental, Social and Governance Report
We may retain significant development and commercial rights to some of our drug candidates. If marketing approval is obtained, we may commercialize our drug candidates on our own, or potentially with a partner, in the United States and other geographies. We currently have no sales, marketing, or commercial product distribution capabilities. Decisions to create this infrastructure and capability will be made following further advancement of our drug candidates and based on our assessment of our ability to build the necessary capabilities and infrastructure
23 Copyright © 2023 Morningstar Sustainalytics. All rights reserved. This section contains information developed by Sustainalytics (www.sustainalytics.com). Such information and data are proprietary of Sustainalytics and/or its third-party suppliers (Third Party Data) and are provided for informational purposes only. They do not constitute an endorsement of any product or project, nor an investment advice and are not warranted to be complete, timely, accurate or suitable for a particular purpose. Their use is subject to conditions available at https://www.sustainalytics.com/legal-disclaimers
with competitive advantage. Clinical data, the size of the addressable patient population, the size of the commercial infrastructure, manufacturing needs and major trends as to how value is accrued in the industry may all influence or alter our commercialization plans.
We currently utilize contract development and manufacturing organizations to produce drug substance and investigational drug product in support of the assets within our pipeline. To date, we have obtained drug substance and drug product for our drug candidates from third party contract manufacturers. We are in the process of developing our supply chain for each of our drug candidates on a project-by-project basis based on our development needs.
In order to achieve our mission, we partner with leading biotechnology companies, pharmaceutical companies and academic research institutions to identify novel therapeutics and unlock biological insights using our discovery technology. Our partnering efforts take two primary forms: i) Discovery Platform Partnerships and ii) Asset-Based Collaborations.
In addition to NCEs, the Recursion OS may discover new uses for known chemical entities owned or controlled by third parties. In such circumstances, we may license rights to these assets in order to advance these programs internally. Following are four such enabling licensing agreements underlying our four clinical stage programs.
REC-994: University of Utah Research Foundation Agreements
In February 2016, we entered into an Amended and Restated License Agreement with the University of Utah Research Foundation, or UURF, pursuant to which we obtained an exclusive license under certain patents and a non-exclusive license under certain know-how, in each case controlled by UURF and related to the drug tempol, or REC-994, to make, have made, use, offer to sell, sell, import and distribute products incorporating REC-994 worldwide for the treatment of cerebral cavernous malformation, or CCM. In partial consideration for the license rights, we issued UURF equity in our company. In addition, we agreed to reimburse UURF for a specified portion of costs associated with the filing, maintenance and prosecution of the licensed patent rights. The Amended and Restated License Agreement will expire on a country-by-country basis upon the expiration of the last-to-expire patent within the patent rights in the applicable country. UURF may terminate the agreement for an uncured material breach, if we cease commercially diligent efforts to develop or commercialize a licensed product or service, or our bankruptcy or insolvency.
REC-2282: Ohio State Innovation Foundation In-License
In December 2018, we entered into an Exclusive License Agreement with the Ohio State Innovation Foundation, or OSIF, pursuant to which we obtained an exclusive, sublicensable, non-transferable, royalty-bearing license under certain patents and fully-paid up, royalty-free, nonexclusive license under certain know-how, in each case controlled by OSIF and related to the pan-histone deacetylase inhibitor, OSU-HDAC42, or REC-2282, to develop, make, have made, use, sell, offer for sale and import products incorporating OSU-HDAC42 worldwide. OSIF also assigned certain assets to us, relating to the pharmaceutical composition known as AR-42. OSIF retains the right to use and allow other academic, nonprofit and government institutions to use the licensed intellectual property for research, non-commercial and educational purposes. OSIF shall not practice, have practiced, or transfer such reserved rights for any clinical purpose other than completion of the existing clinical trials at the time of the license agreement without our prior written consent. We are developing REC-2282 for the treatment of NF2 and are evaluating the utility of the compound in additional disease states using our platform.
Pursuant to the agreement, we must use commercially reasonable efforts to commercialize licensed products and are required to meet certain diligence milestones within two years following the execution of the agreement, including the initiation of clinical trials. The license agreement is also limited by and made subject to certain rights and regulations of the government, including the Bayh-Dole Act.
In consideration for the license, we paid OSIF an upfront payment of $2.0 million dollars and are obligated to pay OSIF certain milestones, totaling up to $20.0 million dollars, as well as mid-single digit royalties on net sales of the licensed products. In addition, we owe 25% of any non-royalty sublicensing consideration prior to a Phase II clinical trial or 15% of such sublicensing consideration after initiation of a Phase II clinical trial, provided that milestone payments are creditable against these sublicensing fees. In 2022 we paid OSIF $1.0 million dollars upon dosing of the first patient in the Phase 2 study of REC-2282 for the treatment of NF2.
The agreement expires on the expiration of the last valid claim within the licensed patents. We may terminate this agreement on 90 days prior written notice to OSIF. Either party may terminate the agreement on 60 days prior written notice for an uncured, material breach by the other party, or bankruptcy or insolvency of the other party.
REC-3599: Chromaderm License Agreement
In December 2019, we entered into a License Agreement with Chromaderm, Inc., or Chromaderm, pursuant to which we obtained an exclusive, sublicensable, worldwide license under certain know-how and future patents that may arise controlled by Chromaderm to develop, manufacture and commercialize products containing ruboxistaurin, an inhibitor of protein kinase C, in non-topical formulations for all uses other than the treatment, prevention and/or diagnosis of skin hyperpigmentation conditions or disorders. Chromaderm obtained an exclusive license from Eli Lilly to certain intellectual property necessary for the development, commercialization and manufacture of ruboxistaurin and has developed certain additional intellectual property. Chromaderm reserved the right to use the licensed intellectual property to fulfill its obligations under supply and manufacturing agreements with us, and both Chromaderm and Eli Lilly reserved rights to use the licensed intellectual property to fulfill obligations under existing agreements and in the case of Eli Lilly for internal research. In Q4 2022, we announced that we had discontinued development of ruboxistaurin, or REC-3599, in GM2; however, we continue to evaluate the compound as a potential medicine for various other indications. We are required to use commercially reasonable efforts to develop and commercialize the licensed products in the territory in accordance with a specified development plan as may be modified by us at any time in our sole discretion. Under the agreement, we are prohibited from developing, manufacturing, or commercializing licensed products for the treatment, prevention and/or diagnosis of skin hyperpigmentation conditions or disorders.
Under the agreement, we paid Chromaderm an upfront payment of $1.3 million. We are obligated to pay Chromaderm certain development milestones with respect to the licensed products, totaling up to $35.5 million for a first indication, up to $52.5 million if multiple indications are pursued, and certain commercial milestones totaling up to $49 million. Finally, we will owe Chromaderm mid-single-digit to low-double-digit tiered royalties on net sales of REC-3599. As of the date of this filing, we have not made any milestone or royalty payments to Chromaderm.
The agreement will expire, on a licensed product-by-licensed product basis, a country-by-country basis upon the later of (a) the last to expire of the licensed patents applicable to the development, manufacture or commercialization of a licensed product in such country, (b) ten years from the first commercial sale of licensed product in such country, or (c) the expiration of regulatory exclusivity of such licensed product in such country. We may terminate the agreement on 90 days prior written notice to Chromaderm. Either party may terminate the agreement upon 45 days prior written notice (15 days for payment breaches) for an uncured, material breach by the other party.
REC-4881: Takeda License Agreement
In May 2020, we entered into a License Agreement, or the Takeda In-License, with Takeda Pharmaceutical Company Limited, or Takeda, pursuant to which we obtained an exclusive (even as to Takeda and its affiliates), worldwide, sublicensable under certain conditions, transferable, royalty-bearing license to certain Takeda patents, know-how and materials related to develop, manufacture and commercialize Takeda’s clinical-stage compound known as TAK-733, a non-ATP-competitive allosteric inhibitor of MEK1 and MEK2, subject to a non-exclusive, royalty-free, irrevocable, fully paid up, license back to Takeda to use the licensed compounds for non-clinical research purposes. We are currently developing the compound REC-4881 for the treatment of FAP, and patients with spontaneous APC-mutant tumors. We are also evaluating the utility of the compound in additional disease states using our platform.
We are required to use commercially reasonable efforts to develop and commercialize at least one licensed product in each of (a) the US, (b) at least three of the following European countries: the United Kingdom, France, Germany, Italy and Spain and (c) Japan.
Upon execution of the agreement, we paid an upfront fee of $1.5 million to Takeda. Under the Takeda In-License, we are obligated to pay Takeda milestones amounts totaling up to $39.5 million upon achievement of specified development and regulatory milestone events. In addition, we are obligated to pay Takeda low-to-mid single-digit royalties based on net sales of products containing the licensed compounds by us, our affiliates or sublicensees, subject to specified reductions. Our obligation to pay royalties continues on a country-by-country basis until the latest of expiration of the last to expire patent licensed by Takeda that covers the product, expiration of any regulatory exclusivity period for the product and ten years after the first commercial sale of the product, in such country. As of the date of this filing, we have not made any milestone or royalty payments to Takeda.
Each party has the right to terminate the license agreement for the other party’s material uncured breach, insolvency or bankruptcy. In addition, we may terminate the agreement without cause any time after May 2023, and Takeda may terminate the agreement if we have not conducted any material activities in support of the development or commercialization of the licensed compounds or any product containing a licensed compound and have not demonstrated that we used commercially reasonable efforts towards the development of such compounds or products for a period of 12 consecutive months and such failure is not due to events beyond our reasonable control. Further, Takeda may terminate the license agreement if we challenge the validity or enforceability of a licensed patent. Upon termination for any reason other than for Takeda’s breach of the license agreement, upon Takeda’s request we are obligated to negotiate in good faith, for a period of 120 days, terms and conditions of a license to Takeda under certain technology developed by us during the term of the agreement for the purpose of developing, commercializing and otherwise exploiting the licensed compounds and products containing the licensed compounds.
We are a clinical-stage biotechnology company utilizing advanced technologies across biology, chemistry, automation and computer science to discover and design therapeutics at unprecedented scale and efficiency. Our efforts to date have resulted in an expansive pipeline of differentiated programs in early discovery and preclinical development and four clinical-stage programs as well as an intellectual property portfolio comprising patents, trademarks, software and trade secrets. We believe that our differentiated approach to technology-enabled drug discovery, a combination of both wet lab and computational approaches embodied by the Recursion OS, provides us with a significant competitive advantage.
We are a hybrid company, comprising the best elements of technology-enabled drug discovery companies, scalable platform companies and traditional biopharma companies. As such, we compete within multiple categories of the pharmaceutical and biotechnology industries where companies are similarly working to integrate rapidly advancing technologies into their drug discovery and development activities and/or are creating scalable scientific platforms with the potential to generate large therapeutic pipelines and where other companies are developing therapies targeting indications we are or may choose to pursue. While we believe we have the competitive advantages referred to above, we face competition from major pharmaceutical and biotechnology companies, academic institutions, governmental agencies, consortiums and public and private research institutions, among others, many of whom have significantly greater resources than us. Notable competitors include:
•Technology-Enabled Drug Discovery Companies. Such companies apply computational tools to unlock novel insights or accelerate drug discovery and development across different points in the value chain. Representative examples include Relay Therapeutics, Exscientia, Schrodinger, AbCellera and Insitro.
•Scalable Platform Companies. Such companies are applying novel scientific approaches or engineering novel therapeutic modalities with the potential to seed large numbers of therapeutic candidates. These companies may compete directly with our pipeline of predominantly small molecule therapeutics. Representative companies include Moderna, BioNTech and CureVac.
•Traditional Biopharma Companies. Such companies, while primarily engaged in late-stage clinical development and product commercialization, are increasingly making their own investments in the application of ML and advanced computational tools across the drug discovery and development value
chain. Such investments may include partnerships with other biotechnology companies (including Recursion) from which we may benefit. Representative companies include Novartis, Janssen (a subsidiary of Johnson & Johnson), Merck and Pfizer.
•Large Technology Companies. Large technology companies constantly seek growth opportunities. Technology-enabled drug discovery may represent a compelling opportunity for these companies, some of which have research groups or subsidiaries focused on drug discovery and others of which have signed large technology partnerships with biopharma companies. Representative companies include Alphabet, Microsoft and Amazon.
Our intellectual property focus is the industrialization of phenomics, a new class of -omics data, and have applied industry knowledge to date to continue to build out and expand a variety of other cutting-edge technologies. Further, we have generated algorithmic, software and statistical insights in the course of our work. Within the burgeoning field of technology-enabled drug discovery, we seek to protect our innovations, with a combination of patents and trade secrets and for each novel technology or improvement we develop, we consider the appropriate course of intellectual property protection.
Our commercial success depends in part on our ability to obtain and maintain proprietary protection for drug candidates and any of our future drug candidates, novel discoveries, product development technologies and know how; to operate without infringing, misappropriating or otherwise violating the proprietary rights of others; and to prevent others from infringing, misappropriating or otherwise violating our proprietary rights. Our policy is to seek to protect our proprietary position by, among other methods, filing or in-licensing U.S. and foreign patents and patent applications related to our proprietary technology, inventions and improvements that are important to the development and implementation of our business. We also rely on trademarks, trade secrets, know-how, continuing technological innovation and potential in-licensing opportunities to develop and maintain our proprietary position.
We believe in the benefits of open-source science and that open-source data sharing drives value for us and society as a whole. For example, we have published certain key findings and datasets derived from our platform around COVID-19 under terms designed to allow anyone to make use of the data, in the hope that the data would be useful in fighting the global pandemic. We have also released some of the largest open-sourced biological datasets in the world under terms that allow for broad academic and non-commercial use.
As of February 2023, Recursion has a number of issued patents and pending applications in the US and over 75 foreign jurisdictions. These filings are from over 90 different patent families, covering all aspects of our business, including Platform IP and Program IP.
•Recursion Platform IP: The Recursion Platform IP encompasses the Recursion OS IP, as well as many other inventions related to cell perturbations, gene editing, cell manufacturing and hardware solutions. We also pursue a strategy of seeking patent protection on smaller discrete inventions throughout the breadth of our pipeline, ranging from experiment design, operations within our labs, data collection and analysis (including deep learning insights). We have 23 distinct patent families related to our Recursion Platform, with patents expiring as late as 2044.
•InVivomics: Additionally, through our acquisition of Vium, we obtained a collection of active patent families related to InVivomics, including 39 issued U.S. patents covering cage design, data collection and data analysis, 19 pending U.S. non-provisional patent applications and 1 pending U.S. design application. Our patents related to our InVivomics generally expire between 2035 and 2040.
•Recursion Program IP: A breakdown of our Program IP portfolio is below:
◦REC-2282: We exclusively license patents and patent applications related to REC-2282 from OSIF; this patent estate includes composition of matter IP for REC-2282. Our licensed patents related to REC-2282 generally expire between 2027 and 2038, excluding any patent term adjustment or patent term extension.
◦REC-994: We exclusively license patents in connection with our REC-994 product candidate from UURF; this patent estate is targeted at the use of REC-994 for the treatment of CCM. Our licensed patents related to REC-994 generally expire between 2035 and 2036, excluding any patent term adjustment or patent term extension. Orphan drug exclusivity in the U.S. would run seven years from marketing authorization.
◦REC-4881: We exclusively license patents and patent applications in connection with our REC-4881 product candidate from Takeda; this patent estate includes composition of matter IP for REC-4881. Our licensed patents related to REC-4881 generally expire between 2027 and 2032, excluding any patent term adjustment or patent term extension. Orphan drug exclusivity in the U.S. for FAP would run seven years from marketing authorization.
◦REC-3964: This program was generated internally and has pending patent applications that would expire in 2042 excluding any patent term adjustment or patent term extension.
The patent positions of companies like ours are generally uncertain and involve complex legal and factual questions. No consistent policy regarding the scope of claims allowable in patents in the field of biotechnology has emerged in the United States and in Europe, among other countries. Changes in the patent laws and rules, either by legislation, judicial decisions, or regulatory interpretation in other countries may diminish our ability to protect our inventions and enforce our intellectual property rights, and more generally could affect the value of our intellectual property. In particular, our ability to stop third parties from making, using, selling, offering to sell, importing, or otherwise commercializing any of our patented inventions, either directly or indirectly, will depend in part on our success in obtaining, defending and enforcing patent claims that cover our technology, inventions and improvements. With respect to both licensed and company-owned intellectual property, we cannot be sure that patents will be granted with respect to any of our pending patent applications or with respect to any patent applications filed by us in the future, nor can we be sure that any of our existing patents or any patents that may be granted to us in the future will be commercially useful in protecting our platform and drug candidates and the methods used to manufacture them. Moreover, our issued patents and those that may issue in the future may not guarantee us the right to practice our technology in relation to the commercialization of our platform’s drug candidates. The area of patent and other intellectual property rights in biotechnology is an evolving one with many risks and uncertainties, which may prevent us from commercializing our drug candidates and future drug candidates and practicing our proprietary technology.
Our issued patents and those that may issue in the future may be challenged, narrowed, circumvented, or invalidated, which could limit our ability to stop competitors from marketing related platforms or drug candidates or limit the length of the term of patent protection that we may have for our drug candidates, future drug candidates and platforms. In addition, the rights granted under any issued patents may not provide us with complete protection or competitive advantages against competitors with similar technology. Furthermore, our competitors may independently develop similar technologies that achieve similar outcomes but with different approaches. For these reasons, we may have competition for our drug candidates. Moreover, the time required for the development, testing and regulatory review of our candidate products may shorten the length of effective patent protection following commercialization. For this and other risks related to our proprietary technology, inventions, improvements, platforms and drug candidates, please see the section titled “Risk Factors—Risks Related to Our Intellectual Property.”
Our commercial success will also depend in part on not infringing upon the proprietary rights of third parties. It is uncertain whether the issuance of any third-party patent would require us to alter our development or commercial strategies for our products or processes or to obtain licenses or cease certain activities. Our breach of any license agreements or failure to obtain a license to proprietary rights that we may require to develop or commercialize our future products may have an adverse impact on us. If third parties prepare and file patent applications in the United States that also claim technology to which we have rights, we may have to participate in interference or derivation proceedings in the USPTO to determine priority of invention. For more information, please see “Risk Factors—Risks Related to Our Intellectual Property.”
Some of our pending patent applications in the United States are provisional patent applications. Provisional patent applications are not eligible to become issued patents until, among other things, we file a non-provisional patent application within 12 months of filing of one or more of our related provisional patent applications. If we do not timely
file any non-provisional patent applications, we may lose our priority date with respect to our provisional patent applications and any patent protection on the inventions disclosed in our provisional patent applications. While we intend to timely file non-provisional patent applications relating to our provisional patent applications, we cannot predict whether any such patent applications will result in the issuance of patents that provide us with any competitive advantage.
The term of individual patents depends upon the legal term of the patents in the countries in which they are obtained. In most countries in which we file, the patent term is 20 years from the earliest date of filing a nonprovisional patent application related to the patent. However, the actual protection afforded by a patent varies on a product-by-product basis, from country to country, and depends upon many factors, including the type of patent, the scope of its coverage, the availability of regulatory-related extensions, the availability of legal remedies in a particular country, and the validity and enforceability of the patent. A U.S. patent also may be accorded patent term adjustment, or PTA, under certain circumstances to compensate for delays in obtaining the patent from the USPTO. In some instances, such a PTA may result in a U.S. patent term extending beyond 20 years from the earliest date of filing a non-provisional patent application related to the U.S. patent. In addition, in the United States, the term of a U.S. patent that covers an FDA-approved drug may also be eligible for patent term extension, which permits patent term restoration as compensation for the patent term lost during the FDA regulatory review process.
As of January 2023, our trademark portfolio comprises more than 70 registered trademarks or active trademark applications worldwide, among which we have issued trademarks in the U.S. for “Recursion” and “Recursion Pharmaceuticals.”
In addition to our reliance on patent protection for our inventions, drug candidates and programs, we also rely on trade secrets, know-how, confidentiality agreements and continuing technological innovation to develop and maintain our competitive position. For example, some elements of manufacturing processes, proprietary assays, analytics techniques and processes, knowledge gained through clinical experience such as approaches to dosing and administration and management of patients, as well as computational-biological algorithms, and related processes and software, are based on unpatented trade secrets and know-how that are not publicly disclosed. Although we take steps to protect our proprietary information and trade secrets, including through contractual means with our employees, advisors and consultants, these agreements may be breached, and we may not have adequate remedies for any breach. In addition, third parties may independently develop substantially equivalent proprietary information and techniques or otherwise gain access to our trade secrets or disclose our technology. As a result, we may not be able to meaningfully protect our trade secrets. It is our policy to require our employees, consultants, outside scientific collaborators, sponsored researchers and other advisors to execute confidentiality agreements upon the commencement of employment or consulting relationships with us. These agreements provide that all confidential information concerning our business or financial affairs developed or made known to the individual or entity during the course of the party’s relationship with us is to be kept confidential and not disclosed to third parties except in specific circumstances. In the case of employees, the agreements provide that all inventions conceived of by the individual during the course of employment, and which relate to or are reasonably capable or being used in our current or planned business or research and development are our exclusive property. In addition, we take other appropriate precautions, such as physical and technological security measures, to guard against the misappropriation of our proprietary technology by third parties. However, such agreements and policies may be breached, and we may not have adequate remedies for such breaches. For more information regarding the risks related to our intellectual property, see “Risk Factors—Risks Related to Our Intellectual Property.”
Government authorities in the United States at the federal, state and local level and in other countries regulate, among other things, the research, development, testing, manufacture, quality control, approval, labeling, packaging, storage, record-keeping, promotion, advertising, distribution, post-approval monitoring and reporting, marketing and export and import of drug and biological products. Generally, before a new drug can be marketed, considerable data demonstrating its quality, safety and efficacy must be obtained, organized into a format specific for each regulatory authority, submitted for review and approved by the relevant regulatory authority.
U.S. Drug Development
In the United States, the FDA regulates drugs under the Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act, or FDCA. Drugs also are subject to other federal, state and local statutes and regulations. The process of obtaining regulatory approvals and the subsequent compliance with appropriate federal, state, local and foreign statutes and regulations requires the expenditure of substantial time and financial resources. Failure to comply with the applicable United States requirements at any time during the product development process, approval process or post-market may subject an applicant to administrative or judicial sanctions. These sanctions could include, among other actions, the FDA’s refusal to approve pending applications, withdrawal of an approval, a clinical hold, untitled or warning letters, product recalls or market withdrawals, product seizures, total or partial suspension of production or distribution, injunctions, fines, refusals of government contracts, restitution, disgorgement and civil or criminal penalties. Any agency or judicial enforcement action could have a material adverse effect on us.
•Our drug candidates are considered small molecule drugs and must be approved by the FDA through the new drug application, or NDA, process before they may be legally marketed in the United States. The process generally involves the following: completion of extensive preclinical studies in accordance with applicable regulations, including studies conducted in accordance with good laboratory practice, or GLP;
•submission to the FDA of an investigational new drug, or IND, application, which must become effective before human clinical trials in the U.S. may begin;
•approval by an independent institutional review board, or IRB, or ethics committee at each clinical trial site before each trial may be initiated;
•performance of adequate and well-controlled human clinical trials in accordance with applicable IND regulations, good clinical practice, or GCP, requirements and other clinical trial-related regulations to establish substantial evidence of the safety and efficacy of the investigational product for each proposed indication;
•submission to the FDA of an NDA;
•a determination by the FDA within 60 days of its receipt of an NDA to accept the filing for review;
•satisfactory completion of an FDA pre-approval inspection of the manufacturing facility or facilities where the drug will be produced to assess compliance with cGMP requirements to assure that the facilities, methods and controls are adequate to preserve the drug’s identity, strength, quality and purity;
•potential FDA audit of the preclinical study and/or clinical trial sites that generated the data in support of the NDA filing;
•payment of user fees for FDA review of the NDA;
•FDA review and approval of the NDA, including consideration of the views of any FDA advisory committee, prior to any commercial marketing or sale of the drug in the United States; and
•compliance with any post-approval requirements, including the potential requirement to implement a Risk Evaluation and Mitigation Strategy, or REMS, and the potential requirement to conduct post-approval studies.
The data required to support an NDA is generated in two distinct developmental stages: preclinical and clinical. The preclinical and clinical testing and approval process requires substantial time, effort and financial resources, and we cannot be certain that any approvals for any current and future drug candidates will be granted on a timely basis, or at all.
Preclinical Studies and IND
Before testing any drug product candidate in humans, the product candidate must undergo rigorous preclinical testing. The conduct of preclinical studies is subject to federal regulations and requirements, including GLP and ICH
regulations for safety/toxicology studies. The preclinical developmental stage generally involves laboratory evaluations of drug chemistry, formulation and stability, as well as studies to evaluate toxicity in animals, which support subsequent clinical testing. The sponsor must submit the results of the preclinical studies, together with manufacturing information, analytical data, any available clinical data or literature and a proposed clinical protocol, to the FDA as part of the IND. An IND is a request for authorization from the FDA to administer an investigational product to humans and must become effective before human clinical trials may begin.
Preclinical studies include laboratory evaluation of product chemistry and formulation, as well as in vitro and animal studies to assess the potential for adverse events and in some cases to establish a rationale for therapeutic use. The conduct of preclinical studies is subject to federal regulations and requirements, including GLP regulations for safety/toxicology studies. An IND sponsor must submit the results of the preclinical tests, together with manufacturing information, analytical data, any available clinical data or literature and plans for clinical studies, among other things, to the FDA as part of an IND. Some long-term preclinical testing, such as animal tests of reproductive adverse events and carcinogenicity, may continue after the IND is submitted. An IND automatically becomes effective 30 days after receipt by the FDA, unless before that time the FDA raises concerns or questions related to one or more proposed clinical trials and places the trial on clinical hold. In such a case, the IND sponsor and the FDA must resolve any outstanding concerns before the clinical trial can begin. As a result, submission of an IND may not result in the FDA allowing clinical trials, which are generally required for FDA approval of an NDA, to commence. A separate submission to an existing IND must also be made for each successive clinical trial conducted during product development along with any subsequent changes to the investigational plan. Some long-term nonclinical testing, such as animal tests of reproductive adverse events and carcinogenicity, may continue after the IND is submitted.
The clinical stage of development involves the administration of the investigational product to healthy volunteers or patients under the supervision of qualified investigators, generally physicians not employed by or under the trial sponsor’s control, in accordance with GCP requirements, which include the requirement that all research subjects provide their informed consent for their participation in any clinical trial. Clinical trials are conducted under protocols detailing, among other things, the objectives of the clinical trial, dosing procedures, subject selection and exclusion criteria and the parameters to be used to monitor subject safety and assess efficacy. Each protocol, and any subsequent amendments to the protocol, must be submitted to the FDA as part of the IND. Furthermore, each clinical trial must be reviewed and approved by an IRB for each institution at which the clinical trial will be conducted to ensure that the risks to individuals participating in the clinical trials are minimized and are reasonable in relation to anticipated benefits. The IRB must also approve the informed consent form that must be provided to each clinical trial subject or his or her legal representative and must monitor the clinical trial until completed. There also are requirements governing the reporting of ongoing clinical trials and completed clinical trial results to public registries.
A sponsor who wishes to conduct a clinical trial outside of the United States may, but need not, obtain FDA authorization to conduct the clinical trial under an IND. If a foreign clinical trial is not conducted under an IND, the sponsor may submit data from the clinical trial to the FDA in support of an NDA. The FDA will generally accept a well-designed and well-conducted foreign clinical trial not conducted under an IND if the trial was conducted in accordance with GCP and GMP requirements, and the FDA is able to validate the data through an onsite inspection, if deemed necessary, and the practice of medicine in the foreign country is consistent with the United States.
Clinical trials in the United States generally are conducted in three sequential phases, known as Phase 1, Phase 2 and Phase 3, and may overlap.
•Phase 1 clinical trials generally involve a small number of healthy volunteers or disease-affected patients who are initially exposed to a single dose and then multiple doses of the drug candidate. The primary purpose of these clinical trials is to assess the metabolism, pharmacologic action, tolerability and safety of the drug, the side effects associated with increasing doses, and if possible to gain early evidence on effectiveness.
•Phase 2 clinical trials involve studies in disease-affected patients to determine the dose and dosing schedule required to produce the desired benefits. At the same time, safety and further pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic information are collected, possible adverse effects and safety risks are identified, and a preliminary evaluation of efficacy is conducted.
•Phase 3 clinical trials generally involve a large number of patients at multiple sites and are designed to provide the data necessary to demonstrate the effectiveness of the product for its intended use, its safety in use and to establish the overall benefit/risk relationship of the product and provide an adequate basis for product approval. These trials may include comparisons with placebo and/or other comparator treatments. The duration of treatment is often extended to mimic the actual use of a product during marketing.
Post-approval trials, sometimes referred to as Phase 4 clinical trials, are conducted after initial marketing approval. These trials are used to gain additional experience from the treatment of patients in the intended therapeutic indication. In certain instances, the FDA may mandate the performance of Phase 4 clinical trials as a condition of approval of an NDA.
Progress reports detailing the results of the clinical trials, among other information, must be submitted at least annually to the FDA. The sponsor is also responsible for submitting written IND safety reports, including reports of serious and unexpected suspected adverse events, findings from other studies suggesting a significant risk to humans exposed to the drug, findings from animal or in vitro testing that suggest a significant risk for human subjects, and any clinically significant increase in the rate of a serious suspected adverse reaction over that listed in the protocol or investigator brochure.
Phase 1, Phase 2 and Phase 3 clinical trials may not be completed successfully within any specified period, if at all. The FDA or the sponsor may suspend or terminate a clinical trial at any time on various grounds, including a finding that the research subjects or patients are being exposed to an unacceptable health risk. Similarly, an IRB can suspend or terminate approval of a clinical trial at its institution if the clinical trial is not being conducted in accordance with the IRB’s requirements or if the drug has been associated with unexpected serious harm to patients. Additionally, some clinical trials are overseen by an independent group of qualified experts organized by the clinical trial sponsor, known as a data safety monitoring board or committee. This group provides authorization for whether a trial may move forward at designated checkpoints based on access to certain data from the trial.
Concurrent with clinical trials, companies usually complete additional animal safety studies and also must develop additional information about the chemistry and physical characteristics of the drug as well as finalize a process for manufacturing the product in commercial quantities in accordance with cGMP requirements. The manufacturing process, as performed by the manufacturing facility, must be capable of consistently producing quality batches of our drug candidates. Additionally, appropriate packaging must be selected and tested, and stability studies must be conducted to demonstrate that our drug candidates do not undergo unacceptable deterioration over their labeled shelf life.
NDA Review Process
Following completion of the clinical trials, data is analyzed to assess whether the investigational product is safe and effective for the proposed indicated use or uses. The results of preclinical studies and clinical trials are then submitted to the FDA as part of an NDA, along with proposed labeling, chemistry, and manufacturing information to ensure product quality and other relevant data. In short, the NDA is a request for approval to market the drug in the United States for one or more specified indications and must contain proof of safety and efficacy for a drug.
The application must include both negative and ambiguous results of preclinical studies and clinical trials, as well as positive findings. Data may come from company-sponsored clinical trials intended to test the safety and efficacy of a product’s use or from a number of alternative sources, including studies initiated by investigators. To support marketing approval, the data submitted must be sufficient in quality and quantity to establish the safety and efficacy of the investigational product to the satisfaction of the FDA. FDA approval of an NDA must be obtained before a drug may be legally marketed in the United States.
Under the Prescription Drug User Fee Act, or PDUFA, as amended, each NDA must be accompanied by a user fee. FDA adjusts the PDUFA user fees on an annual basis. PDUFA also imposes an annual program fee for each marketed human drug. Fee waivers or reductions are available in certain circumstances, including a waiver of the application fee for the first application filed by a small business. Additionally, no user fees are assessed on NDAs for products designated as orphan drugs, unless the product also includes a non-orphan indication.
The FDA reviews all submitted NDAs before it accepts them for filing and may request additional information rather than accepting the NDA for filing. The FDA must make a decision on accepting an NDA for filing within 60 days of receipt. Once the submission is accepted for filing, the FDA begins an in-depth review of the NDA. Under the goals and policies agreed to by the FDA under PDUFA, the FDA has ten months, from the filing date, in which to complete its initial review of a new molecular-entity NDA and respond to the applicant, and six months from the filing date of a new molecular-entity NDA designated for priority review. The FDA does not always meet its PDUFA goal dates for standard and priority NDAs, and the review process is often extended by FDA requests for additional information or clarification.
Before approving an NDA, the FDA will conduct a pre-approval inspection of the manufacturing facilities for the new product to determine whether they comply with cGMP requirements. The FDA will not approve the product unless it determines that the manufacturing processes and facilities are in compliance with cGMP requirements and adequate to assure consistent production of the product within required specifications. The FDA also may audit data from clinical trials to ensure compliance with GCP requirements. Additionally, the FDA may refer applications for novel drug products or drug products which present difficult questions of safety or efficacy to an advisory committee, typically a panel that includes clinicians and other experts, for review, evaluation and a recommendation as to whether the application should be approved and under what conditions, if any. The FDA is not bound by recommendations of an advisory committee, but it considers such recommendations when making decisions on approval. The FDA likely will reanalyze the clinical trial data, which could result in extensive discussions between the FDA and the applicant during the review process. After the FDA evaluates an NDA, it will issue an approval letter or a Complete Response Letter. An approval letter authorizes commercial marketing of the drug with specific prescribing information for specific indications. A Complete Response Letter indicates that the review cycle of the application is complete, and the application will not be approved in its present form. A Complete Response Letter usually describes all of the specific deficiencies in the NDA identified by the FDA. The Complete Response Letter may require additional clinical data, additional pivotal Phase 3 clinical trial(s) and/or other significant and time-consuming requirements related to clinical trials, preclinical studies and/or manufacturing. If a Complete Response Letter is issued, the applicant may either resubmit the NDA, addressing all of the deficiencies identified in the letter, or withdraw the application. Even if such data and information are submitted, the FDA may decide that the NDA does not satisfy the criteria for approval. Data obtained from clinical trials are not always conclusive and the FDA may interpret data differently than we interpret the same data.
Under the Pediatric Research Equity Act, or PREA, NDAs or supplements to NDAs must contain data to assess the safety and effectiveness of the drug for the claimed indications in all relevant pediatric subpopulations and to support dosing and administration for each pediatric subpopulation for which the drug is safe and effective. The FDA may grant full or partial waivers, or deferrals, for submission of data.
The Best Pharmaceuticals for Children Act, or BPCA, provides NDA holders a six-month extension of any exclusivity—patent or non-patent—for a drug if certain conditions are met. Conditions for exclusivity include the FDA’s determination that information relating to the use of a new drug in the pediatric population may produce health benefits in that population, the FDA making a written request for pediatric studies and the applicant agreeing to perform, and reporting on, the requested studies within the statutory timeframe. Applications under the BPCA are treated as priority applications, with all of the benefits that designation confers.
Under the Orphan Drug Act, the FDA may grant an orphan designation to a drug or biological product intended to treat a rare disease or condition, which is generally a disease or condition that affects fewer than 200,000 individuals in the United States, or more than 200,000 individuals in the United States and for which there is no reasonable expectation that the cost of developing and making the product available in the United States for this type of disease or condition will be recovered from sales of the product.
Orphan drug designation must be requested before submitting an NDA. After the FDA grants orphan drug designation, the identity of the therapeutic agent and its potential orphan use are disclosed publicly by the FDA. Orphan drug designation does not convey any advantage in or shorten the duration of the regulatory review and approval process.
If a product that has orphan designation subsequently receives the first FDA approval for the disease or condition for which it has such designation, the product is entitled to orphan drug exclusivity, which means that the FDA may
not approve any other applications to market the same drug for the same indication for seven years from the date of such approval, except in limited circumstances, such as a showing of clinical superiority to the product with orphan exclusivity by means of greater effectiveness, greater safety, or providing a major contribution to patient care or in instances of drug supply issues. However, competitors may receive approval of either a different product for the same indication or the same product for a different indication but that could be used off-label in the orphan indication. Orphan drug exclusivity also could block the approval of one of our products for seven years if a competitor obtains approval before we do for the same product, as defined by the FDA, for the same indication we are seeking approval, or if a drug candidate is determined to be contained within the scope of the competitor’s product for the same indication. If one of our products designated as an orphan drug receives marketing approval for an indication broader than that which is designated, it may not be entitled to orphan drug exclusivity. Orphan drug status in the European Union has similar, but not identical, requirements and benefits.
Expedited Development and Review Programs
The FDA has a fast track program that is intended to expedite or facilitate the process for reviewing new drugs that meet certain criteria. Specifically, new drugs are eligible for fast track designation if they are intended to treat a serious or life-threatening condition and preclinical or clinical data demonstrate the potential to address unmet medical needs for the condition. Fast track designation applies to both the product and the specific indication for which it is being studied. The sponsor can request the FDA to designate the product for fast track status any time before receiving NDA approval, but ideally no later than the pre-NDA meeting with the FDA.
Any product submitted to the FDA for marketing, including under a fast track program, may be eligible for other types of FDA programs intended to expedite development and review, such as priority review and accelerated approval. Any product is eligible for priority review if it treats a serious or life-threatening condition and, if approved, would provide a significant improvement in safety and effectiveness compared to available therapies.
A product may also be eligible for accelerated approval, if it treats a serious or life-threatening condition and generally provides a meaningful advantage over available therapies. In addition, it must demonstrate an effect on a surrogate endpoint that is reasonably likely to predict clinical benefit or on a clinical endpoint that can be measured earlier than irreversible morbidity or mortality, or IMM, which is reasonably likely to predict an effect on IMM or other clinical benefit. As a condition of approval, the FDA may require that a sponsor of a drug receiving accelerated approval perform adequate and well-controlled post-marketing clinical trials. FDA may withdraw drug approval or require changes to the labeled indication of the drug if confirmatory post-market trials fail to verify clinical benefit or do not demonstrate sufficient clinical benefit to justify the risks associated with the drug. If the FDA concludes that a drug shown to be effective can be safely used only if distribution or use is restricted, it may require such post-marketing restrictions as it deems necessary to assure safe use of the product.
Additionally, a drug may be eligible for designation as a breakthrough therapy if the product is intended, alone or in combination with one or more other drugs or biologics, to treat a serious or life-threatening condition and preliminary clinical evidence indicates that the product may demonstrate substantial improvement over currently approved therapies on one or more clinically significant endpoints. The benefits of breakthrough therapy designation include the same benefits as fast track designation, plus intensive guidance from the FDA to ensure an efficient drug development program. Fast track designation, priority review, accelerated approval and breakthrough therapy designations do not change the standards for approval, but may expedite the development or approval process.
Following approval of a new product, the manufacturer and the approved product are subject to continuing regulation by the FDA, including, among other things, monitoring and record-keeping requirements, requirements to report adverse events and comply with promotion and advertising requirements, which include restrictions on promoting drugs for unapproved uses or patient populations, known as “off-label promotion,” and limitations on industry-sponsored scientific and educational activities. Although physicians may prescribe legally available drugs for off-label uses, manufacturers may not market or promote such uses. Prescription drug promotional materials must be submitted to the FDA in conjunction with their first use. Further, if there are any modifications to the drug, including changes in indications, labeling, or manufacturing processes or facilities, the applicant may be required to submit and obtain FDA approval of a new NDA or NDA supplement, which may require the development of additional data or preclinical studies and clinical trials.
The FDA may also place other conditions on approvals including the requirement for REMS, to assure the safe use of the product. A REMS could include medication guides, physician communication plans or elements to assure safe use, such as restricted distribution methods, patient registries and other risk minimization tools. Any of these limitations on approval or marketing could restrict the commercial promotion, distribution, prescription or dispensing of products. Product approvals may be withdrawn for non-compliance with regulatory standards or if problems occur following initial marketing.
FDA regulations require that products be manufactured in specific approved facilities and in accordance with cGMP regulations. Manufacturers must comply with cGMP regulations that require, among other things, quality control and quality assurance, the maintenance of records and documentation, and the obligation to investigate and correct any deviations from cGMP. Manufacturers and other entities involved in the manufacture and distribution of approved drugs are required to register their establishments with the FDA and certain state agencies, and are subject to periodic unannounced inspections by the FDA and certain state agencies for compliance with cGMP requirements and other laws. Accordingly, manufacturers must continue to expend time, money and effort in the area of production and quality control to maintain cGMP compliance. The discovery of violative conditions, including failure to conform to cGMP regulations, could result in enforcement actions, and the discovery of problems with a product after approval may result in restrictions on a product, its manufacturer or the NDA holder, including recalls.
The FDA may withdraw approval if compliance with regulatory requirements and standards is not maintained or if problems occur after the product reaches the market. Later discovery of previously unknown problems with a product, including adverse events of unanticipated severity or frequency, or with manufacturing processes, or failure to comply with regulatory requirements, may result in revisions to the approved labeling to add new safety information; imposition of post-market studies or clinical studies to assess new safety risks or imposition of distribution restrictions or other restrictions under a REMS program. Other potential consequences include, among other things:
•restrictions on the marketing or manufacturing of the product, complete withdrawal of the product from the market, or product recalls;
•fines, warning letters, or holds on post-approval clinical studies;
•refusal of the FDA to approve pending applications or supplements to approved applications;
•suspension or revocation of product approvals;
•product seizure or detention;
•refusal to permit the import or export of products; or
•injunctions or the imposition of civil or criminal penalties.
The FDA strictly regulates marketing, labeling, advertising and promotion of products that are placed on the market. Drugs may be promoted only for the approved indications and in accordance with the provisions of the approved label. The FDA and other agencies actively enforce the laws and regulations prohibiting the promotion of off-label uses, and a company that is found to have improperly promoted off-label uses may be subject to significant liability.
FDA Regulation of Companion Diagnostics
Safe and effective use of a therapeutic product may rely upon an in vitro companion diagnostic for use in selecting the patients that will be more likely to respond to that therapy. If an in vitro diagnostic is essential to the safe and effective use of the therapeutic product and if the manufacturer wishes to market or distribute such diagnostic for use as a companion diagnostic, then the FDA will require separate approval or clearance of the diagnostic as a companion diagnostic to the therapeutic product. According to FDA guidance, an unapproved or uncleared companion diagnostic device used to make treatment decisions in clinical trials of a drug generally will be considered an investigational medical device unless it is employed for an intended use for which the device is already approved or cleared. If used to make critical treatment decisions, such as patient selection, the diagnostic device generally will be considered a significant risk device under the FDA’s Investigational Device Exemption, or IDE, regulations. The sponsor of the diagnostic device will be required to comply with the IDE regulations for clinical
studies involving the investigational diagnostic device. According to the guidance, if a diagnostic device and a drug are to be studied together to support their respective approvals, both products can be studied in the same clinical trial, if the trial meets both the requirements of the IDE regulations and the IND regulations. The guidance provides that depending on the details of the clinical trial protocol, the investigational product(s), and subjects involved, a sponsor may seek to submit an IDE alone (e.g., if the drug has already been approved by FDA and is used consistent with its approved labeling), or both an IND and an IDE.
Pursuing FDA approval/clearance of an in vitro companion diagnostic would require either a pre-market notification, also called 510(k) clearance, or a pre-market approval, or PMA, or a de novo classification for that diagnostic. The review of companion diagnostics involves coordination of review with the FDA’s Center for Devices and Radiological Health.
510(k) clearance process
To obtain 510(k) clearance, a pre-market notification is submitted to the FDA demonstrating that the proposed device is substantially equivalent to a previously cleared 510(k) device or a device that was in commercial distribution before May 28, 1976 for which the FDA has not yet required the submission of a PMA application. The FDA’s 510(k) clearance process may take three to 12 months from the date the application is submitted and filed with the FDA, but may take longer if FDA requests additional information, among other reasons. In some cases, the FDA may require clinical data to support substantial equivalence. In reviewing a pre-market notification submission, the FDA may request additional information, which may significantly prolong the review process. Notwithstanding compliance with all these requirements, clearance is never assured.
After a device receives 510(k) clearance, any subsequent modification of the device that could significantly affect its safety or effectiveness, or that would constitute a major change in its intended use, will require a new 510(k) clearance or require a PMA. In addition, the FDA may make substantial changes to industry requirements, including which devices are eligible for 510(k) clearance, which may significantly affect the process.
De novo classification process
If a new medical device does not qualify for the 510(k) pre-market notification process because no predicate device to which it is substantially equivalent can be identified, the device is automatically classified into Class III. The Food and Drug Administration Modernization Act of 1997 established a different route to market for low to moderate risk medical devices that are automatically placed into Class III due to the absence of a predicate device, called the “Request for Evaluation of Automatic Class III Designation,” or the de novo classification process. This process allows a manufacturer whose novel device is automatically classified into Class III to request down-classification of its medical device into Class I or Class II on the basis that the device presents a low or moderate risk, rather than requiring the submission and approval of a PMA. If the manufacturer seeks reclassification into Class II, the manufacturer must include a draft proposal for special controls that are necessary to provide a reasonable assurance of the safety and effectiveness of the medical device. The FDA may reject the reclassification petition if it identifies a legally marketed predicate device that would be appropriate for a 510(k) or determines that the device is not low to moderate risk and requires PMA or that general controls would be inadequate to control the risks and special controls cannot be developed.
Obtaining FDA marketing authorization, de novo down-classification, or approval for medical devices is expensive and uncertain, may take several years and generally requires significant scientific and clinical data.
The PMA process, including the gathering of clinical and nonclinical data and the submission to and review by the FDA, can take several years or longer. The applicant must prepare and provide the FDA with reasonable assurance of the device’s safety and effectiveness, including information about the device and its components regarding, among other things, device design, manufacturing and labeling. PMA applications are subject to an application fee. In addition, PMAs for medical devices must generally include the results from extensive preclinical and adequate and well-controlled clinical trials to establish the safety and effectiveness of the device for each indication for which FDA approval is sought. In particular, for a diagnostic, the applicant must demonstrate that the diagnostic produces reproducible results. As part of the PMA review, the FDA will typically inspect the manufacturer’s facilities for compliance with the Quality System Regulation, or QSR, which imposes extensive testing, control, documentation and other quality assurance and GMP requirements.
After a device is placed on the market, it remains subject to significant regulatory requirements. Among other requirements, medical devices may be marketed only for the uses and indications for which they are cleared or approved, device manufacturers must establish registration and device listings with the FDA and a medical device manufacturer’s manufacturing processes and those of its suppliers are required to comply with the applicable portions of the Quality System Regulation, or QSR, which cover the methods and documentation of the design, testing, production, processes, controls, quality assurance, labeling, packaging and shipping of medical devices. Domestic facility records and manufacturing processes are subject to periodic unscheduled inspections by the FDA and the FDA also may inspect foreign facilities that export products to the U.S.
Other U.S. Regulatory Matters
•Our current and future arrangements with healthcare providers, third-party payors, customers and others may expose us to broadly applicable fraud and abuse and other healthcare laws and regulations, which may constrain the business or financial arrangements and relationships through which we research, as well as, sell, market and distribute any products for which we obtain marketing approval. The applicable federal, state and foreign healthcare laws and regulations that may affect our ability to operate include, but are not limited to: the federal Anti-Kickback Statute, which makes it illegal for any person, including a prescription drug or medical device manufacturer (or a party acting on its behalf), to knowingly and willfully solicit, receive, offer or pay any remuneration that is intended to induce or reward referrals, including the purchase, recommendation, order or prescription of a particular drug, for which payment may be made under a federal healthcare program, such as Medicare or Medicaid. Moreover, the ACA (as defined below) provides that the government may assert that a claim including items or services resulting from a violation of the federal Anti-Kickback Statute constitutes a false or fraudulent claim for purposes of the civil False Claims Act;
•The federal criminal False Claims Act and Civil Monetary Penalties Laws, and the civil False Claims Act that can be enforced by private citizens through civil whistleblower or qui tam actions, prohibit individuals or entities from, among other things, knowingly presenting, or causing to be presented, to the federal government, claims for payment that are false or fraudulent or making a false statement to avoid, decrease or conceal an obligation to pay money to the federal government and/or impose exclusions from federal health care programs and/or penalties for parties who engage in such prohibited conduct;
•The Federal Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act of 1996, or HIPAA, prohibits, among other things, executing or attempting to execute a scheme to defraud any healthcare benefit program or making false statements relating to healthcare matters;
•HIPAA, as amended by the Health Information Technology for Economic and Clinical Health Act, and their implementing regulations also impose obligations on covered entities such as health insurance plans, healthcare clearinghouses and certain health care providers and their respective business associates, including mandatory contractual terms, with respect to safeguarding the privacy, security and transmission of individually identifiable health information;
•federal consumer protection and unfair competition laws, which broadly regulate marketplace activities and activities that potentially harm consumers;
•the FD&C Act, which prohibits, among other things, the adulteration or misbranding of drugs, biologics and medical devices;
•The federal Physician Payments Sunshine Act requires applicable manufacturers of covered drugs, devices, biologics and medical supplies for which payment is available under Medicare, Medicaid or the Children’s Health Insurance Program, with specific exceptions, to annually report to Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services, or CMS, information regarding certain payments and other transfers of value to physicians and teaching hospitals as well as information regarding ownership and investment interests held by physicians and their immediate family members; and
•Analogous state and foreign laws and regulations, such as state anti-kickback and false claims laws which may apply to sales or marketing arrangements and claims involving healthcare items or services reimbursed by non-governmental third-party payors, including private insurers, state laws that require
biotechnology companies to comply with the biotechnology industry’s voluntary compliance guidelines and the relevant compliance guidance promulgated by the federal government; state and local laws that require drug manufacturers to report information related to payments and other transfers of value to physicians and other healthcare providers or marketing expenditures and require the registration of their sales representatives, state laws that require biotechnology companies to report information on the pricing of certain drug products and state and foreign laws that govern the privacy and security of health information in some circumstances, many of which differ from each other in significant ways and often are not preempted by HIPAA, thus complicating compliance efforts.
Pricing and rebate programs must also comply with the Medicaid rebate requirements of the U.S. Omnibus Budget Reconciliation Act of 1990 and more recent requirements in the Affordable Care Act of 2010, as amended by the Health Care and Education Reconciliation Act of 2010 (collectively, the “ACA”). If products are made available to authorized users of the Federal Supply Schedule of the General Services Administration, additional laws and requirements apply. Manufacturing, sales, promotion and other activities also are potentially subject to federal and state consumer protection and unfair competition laws. In addition, the distribution of pharmaceutical and/or medical device products is subject to additional requirements and regulations, including extensive record-keeping, licensing, storage and security requirements intended to prevent the unauthorized sale of pharmaceutical and/or medical device products. Products must meet applicable child-resistant packaging requirements under the U.S. Poison Prevention Packaging Act as well as other applicable consumer safety requirements.
The failure to comply with any of these laws or regulatory requirements subjects firms to possible legal or regulatory action. Depending on the circumstances, failure to meet applicable regulatory requirements can result in significant civil, criminal and administrative penalties, including damages, fines, disgorgement, imprisonment, exclusion from participation in government funded healthcare programs, such as Medicare and Medicaid, integrity oversight and reporting obligations, contractual damages, reputational harm, diminished profits and future earnings, injunctions, requests for recall, seizure of products, total or partial suspension of production, denial or withdrawal of product approvals or refusal to allow a firm to enter into supply contracts, including government contracts.
U.S. Patent-Term Restoration and Marketing Exclusivity
Depending upon the timing, duration and specifics of FDA approval of any future drug candidates, some of our U.S. patents may be eligible for limited patent term extension under the Hatch-Waxman Act. The Hatch-Waxman Act permits restoration of the patent term of up to five years as compensation for patent term lost during product development and FDA regulatory review process. Patent-term restoration, however, cannot extend the remaining term of a patent beyond a total of 14 years from the product’s approval date. The patent-term restoration period is generally one-half the time between the effective date of an IND or the issue date of the patent, whichever is later, and the submission date of an NDA plus the time between the submission date of an NDA or the issue date of the patent, whichever is later, and the approval of that application, except that the review period is reduced by any time during which the applicant failed to exercise due diligence. Only one patent applicable to an approved drug, a method for using it, or a method of manufacturing it, is eligible for the extension and the application for the extension must be submitted prior to the expiration of the patent. The USPTO, in consultation with the FDA, reviews and approves the application for any patent term extension or restoration. In the future, if and when our products receive FDA approval, we may apply for restoration of patent term for our currently owned or licensed patents covering products eligible for patent term extension to add patent life beyond its current expiration date, depending on the expected length of the clinical trials and other factors involved in the filing of the relevant NDA. Similar provisions are available in Europe and certain other jurisdictions to extend the term of a patent that covers an approved drug. We may seek patent term extension for any of our issued or licensed patents in any jurisdiction where these are available; however, there is no guarantee that the applicable authorities, including the FDA in the United States, will agree with our assessment of whether such extensions should be granted, and if granted, the length of such extensions.
Market exclusivity provisions under the FDCA also can delay the submission or the approval of certain applications. The FDCA provides a five-year period of non-patent marketing exclusivity within the United States to the first applicant to gain approval of an NDA for an NCE. A drug is an NCE if the FDA has not previously approved any other new drug containing the same active moiety, which is the molecule or ion responsible for the action of the drug substance. During the exclusivity period, the FDA may not accept for review an abbreviated new drug application, or ANDA, or a 505(b)(2) NDA submitted by another company for a generic version of such drug where the applicant does not own or have a legal right of reference to all the data required for approval. However, an application may be
submitted after four years if it contains a certification of patent invalidity or non-infringement. The FDCA also provides three years of marketing exclusivity for an NDA, 505(b)(2) NDA or supplement to an existing NDA if new clinical investigations, other than bioavailability studies, that were conducted or sponsored by the applicant are deemed by the FDA to be essential to the approval of the application, for example, new indications, dosages or strengths of an existing drug. This three-year exclusivity covers only the conditions of use associated with the new clinical investigations and does not prohibit the FDA from approving ANDAs for drugs containing the original active agent. Five-year and three-year exclusivity will not delay the submission or approval of a full NDA. However, an applicant submitting a full NDA would be required to conduct or obtain a right of reference to all of the preclinical studies and adequate and well-controlled clinical trials necessary to demonstrate safety and effectiveness or generate such data themselves.
European Union Drug Development
Similar to the United States, the various phases of preclinical and clinical research in the European Union are subject to significant regulatory controls. Although the EU Clinical Trials Directive 2001/20/EC has sought to harmonize the EU clinical trials regulatory framework, setting out common rules for the control and authorization of clinical trials in the EU, the EU Member States have transposed and applied the provisions of the Directive differently. This has led to significant variations in the member state regimes. Under the current regime, before a clinical trial can be initiated, it must be approved in each of the EU countries where the trial is to be conducted by two distinct bodies: the National Competent Authority, NCA, and one or more Ethics Committees, or ECs. Under the current regime all suspected unexpected serious adverse reactions to the investigated drug that occur during the clinical trial have to be reported to the NCA and ECs of the Member State where they occurred.
The EU clinical trials legislation currently is undergoing a transition process mainly aimed at harmonizing and streamlining clinical-trial authorization, simplifying adverse-event reporting procedures, improving the supervision of clinical trials and increasing their transparency. Recently enacted Clinical Trials Regulation EU No 536/2014 ensures that the rules for conducting clinical trials in the EU will be identical. In the meantime, Clinical Trials Directive 2001/20/EC continues to govern all clinical trials performed in the EU.
European Union Drug Review and Approval
In the European Economic Area, or EEA, which is composed of the 28 Member States of the European Union and three European Free Trade Association States (Norway, Iceland and Liechtenstein), medicinal products can only be commercialized after obtaining a Marketing Authorization, or MA. There are two types of marketing authorizations.
•The Community MA is issued by the European Commission through the Centralized Procedure, based on the opinion of the Committee for Medicinal Products for Human Use, or CHMP, of the EMA, and is valid throughout the entire territory of the EEA. The Centralized Procedure is mandatory for certain types of products, such as biotechnology medicinal products, orphan medicinal products, advanced-therapy medicines such as gene-therapy, somatic cell-therapy or tissue-engineered medicines and medicinal products containing a new active substance indicated for the treatment of HIV, AIDS, cancer, neurodegenerative disorders, diabetes, auto-immune and other immune dysfunctions and viral diseases. The Centralized Procedure is optional for products containing a new active substance not yet authorized in the EEA, or for products that constitute a significant therapeutic, scientific, or technical innovation or which are in the interest of public health in the EU.
•National MAs, which are issued by the competent authorities of the Member States of the EEA and only cover their respective territory, are available for products not falling within the mandatory scope of the Centralized Procedure. Where a product has already been authorized for marketing in a Member State of the EEA, this National MA can be recognized in another Member States through the Mutual Recognition Procedure. If the product has not received a National MA in any Member State at the time of application, it can be approved simultaneously in various Member States through the Decentralized Procedure. Under the Decentralized Procedure an identical dossier is submitted to the competent authorities of each of the Member States in which the MA is sought, one of which is selected by the applicant as the Reference Member State, or RMS. The competent authority of the RMS prepares a draft assessment report, a draft summary of the product characteristics, or SOPC, and a draft of the labeling and package leaflet, which are sent to the other Member States (referred to as the Member States Concerned) for their approval. If the Member States Concerned raise no objections, based on a potential serious risk to public health, to the
assessment, SOPC, labeling or packaging proposed by the RMS, the product is subsequently granted a national MA in all the Member States (i.e., in the RMS and the Member States Concerned).
Under the above described procedures, before granting the MA, EMA or the competent authorities of the Member States of the EEA make an assessment of the risk-benefit balance of the product on the basis of scientific criteria concerning its quality, safety and efficacy. Similar to the U.S. patent term-restoration, Supplementary Protection Certificates, or SPCs, serve as an extension to a patent right in Europe for up to five years. SPCs apply to specific pharmaceutical products to offset the loss of patent protection due to the lengthy testing and clinical trials these products require prior to obtaining regulatory marketing approval.
Coverage and Reimbursement
Sales of our products will depend, in part, on the extent to which our products will be covered by third-party payors, such as government health programs, commercial insurance and managed healthcare organizations. There is significant uncertainty related to third-party payor coverage and reimbursement of newly approved products. In the United States, for example, principal decisions about reimbursement for new products are typically made by CMS. CMS decides whether and to what extent a new product will be covered and reimbursed under Medicare, and private third-party payors often follow CMS’s decisions regarding coverage and reimbursement to a substantial degree. However, no uniform policy of coverage and reimbursement for drug products exists. Accordingly, decisions regarding the extent of coverage and amount of reimbursement to be provided for any of our products will be made on a payor-by-payor basis.
Increasingly, third-party payors are requiring that drug companies provide them with predetermined discounts from list prices and are challenging the prices charged for medical products. Further, such payors are increasingly challenging the price, examining the medical necessity and reviewing the cost effectiveness of medical drug candidates. There may be especially significant delays in obtaining coverage and reimbursement for newly approved drugs. Third-party payors may limit coverage to specific drug candidates on an approved list, known as a formulary, which might not include all FDA-approved drugs for a particular indication. We may need to conduct expensive pharmaco-economic studies to demonstrate the medical necessity and cost effectiveness of our products. As a result, the coverage determination process is often a time-consuming and costly process that will require us to provide scientific and clinical support for the use of our products to each payor separately, with no assurance that coverage and adequate reimbursement will be obtained.
In addition, companion diagnostic tests require coverage and reimbursement separate and apart from the coverage and reimbursement for their companion pharmaceutical or biological products. Similar challenges to obtaining coverage and reimbursement, applicable to pharmaceutical or biological products, will apply to companion diagnostics.
In addition, in most foreign countries, the proposed pricing for a drug must be approved before it may be lawfully marketed. The requirements governing drug pricing and reimbursement vary widely from country to country. For example, the European Union provides options for its member states to restrict the range of medicinal products for which their national health insurance systems provide reimbursement and to control the prices of medicinal products for human use. A member state may approve a specific price for the medicinal product or it may instead adopt a system of direct or indirect controls on the profitability of the company placing the medicinal product on the market. There can be no assurance that any country that has price controls or reimbursement limitations for pharmaceutical products will allow favorable reimbursement and pricing arrangements for any of our products. Historically, products launched in the European Union do not follow the price structures of the United States and generally prices tend to be significantly lower.
The Medicare Prescription Drug, Improvement, and Modernization Act of 2003, or MMA, established the Medicare Part D program to provide a voluntary prescription drug benefit to Medicare beneficiaries. Under Part D, Medicare beneficiaries may enroll in prescription drug plans offered by private entities that provide coverage of outpatient prescription drugs. Unlike Medicare Part A and B, Part D coverage is not standardized. While all Medicare drug plans must give at least a standard level of coverage set by Medicare, Part D prescription drug plan sponsors are not required to pay for all covered Part D drugs, and each drug plan can develop its own drug formulary that identifies which drugs it will cover and at what tier or level. However, Part D prescription drug formularies must
include drugs within each therapeutic category and class of covered Part D drugs, though not necessarily all the drugs in each category or class. Any formulary used by a Part D prescription drug plan must be developed and reviewed by a pharmacy and therapeutic committee. Government payment for some of the costs of prescription drugs may increase demand for products for which we receive marketing approval. However, any negotiated prices for our products covered by a Part D prescription drug plan likely will be lower than the prices we might otherwise obtain. Moreover, while the MMA applies only to drug benefits for Medicare beneficiaries, private third-party payors often follow Medicare coverage policy and payment limitations in setting their own payment rates.
The United States government, state legislatures and foreign governments have shown significant interest in implementing cost containment programs to limit the growth of government-paid healthcare costs, including price-controls, restrictions on reimbursement and requirements for substitution of generic products for branded prescription drugs. For example, the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act of 2010, as amended by the Health Care and Education Reconciliation Act of 2010, or collectively, the ACA, was passed which substantially changed the way healthcare is financed by both the government and private insurers, and significantly impacts the U.S. pharmaceutical industry. The ACA contains provisions that may reduce the profitability of drug products through increased rebates for drugs reimbursed by Medicaid programs, extension of Medicaid rebates to Medicaid managed care plans, mandatory discounts for certain Medicare Part D beneficiaries and annual fees based on pharmaceutical companies’ share of sales to federal health care programs. The Medicaid Drug Rebate Program requires pharmaceutical manufacturers to enter into and have in effect a national rebate agreement with the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, or HHS, Secretary as a condition for states to receive federal matching funds for the manufacturer’s outpatient drugs furnished to Medicaid patients. The ACA made several changes to the Medicaid Drug Rebate Program, including increasing pharmaceutical manufacturers’ rebate liability by raising the minimum basic Medicaid rebate on most branded prescription drugs from 15.1% of average manufacturer price, or AMP, to 23.1% of AMP and adding a rebate calculation for “line extensions” (i.e., new formulations, such as extended release formulations) of solid oral dosage forms of branded products, as well as potentially impacting their rebate liability by modifying the statutory definition of AMP. The ACA also expanded the universe of Medicaid utilization subject to drug rebates by requiring pharmaceutical manufacturers to pay rebates on Medicaid managed care utilization and by enlarging the population potentially eligible for Medicaid drug benefits. Additionally, for a drug product to receive federal reimbursement under the Medicaid or Medicare Part B programs or to be sold directly to U.S. government agencies, the manufacturer must extend discounts to entities eligible to participate in the 340B drug pricing program. The required 340B discount on a given product is calculated based on the AMP and Medicaid rebate amounts reported by the manufacturer.
Congress has considered legislation that would repeal or repeal and replace all or part of the ACA. While Congress has not passed comprehensive repeal legislation, two bills affecting the implementation of certain taxes under the ACA have passed.
On November 20, 2020, the HHS Office of Inspector General (“OIG”) issued a final rule eliminating the federal Anti-Kickback Statute safe harbors for rebates paid by manufacturers to Medicare Part D plan sponsors, Medicaid managed care organizations, and those entities’ pharmacy benefit managers, the purpose of which is to further reduce the cost of drug products to consumers. OIG created two safe harbors for certain point-of-sale reductions in price on prescription pharmaceutical products and certain pharmacy benefit manager service fees. On December 2, 2020, OIG and CMS each issued a final rule that set forth modifications to the federal Anti-Kickback Statute, Civil Monetary Penalties Law and Physician Self-Referral Law (or the Stark Law) (respectively) regulations to remove regulatory barriers to value-based care arrangements. CMS’s final rule also clarifies and updates certain long-standing terms that appear throughout the Stark Law regulations.
Other legislative changes have been proposed and adopted in the United States since the ACA was enacted. These changes included aggregate reductions to Medicare payments to providers of up to 2% per fiscal year, effective April 1, 2013, which, due to subsequent legislative amendments, will stay in effect through 2029 unless additional congressional action is taken. The American Taxpayer Relief Act of 2012 was signed into law, which, among other things, reduced Medicare payments to several providers and increased the statute of limitations period for the government to recover overpayments to providers from three to five years. These laws may result in additional reductions in Medicare and other healthcare funding, which could have a material adverse effect on customers for our drugs, if approved, and accordingly, our financial operations.
Additionally, there has been heightened governmental scrutiny recently over the manner in which drug manufacturers set prices for their marketed products, which has resulted in several Congressional inquiries and
proposed and enacted federal and state legislation designed to, among other things, bring more transparency to product pricing, review the relationship between pricing and manufacturer patient programs and reform government program reimbursement methodologies for drug products. For example, the federal Inflation Reduction Act, signed into law on August 16, 2022, contains multiple provisions that could have an adverse effect on our ability to generate revenue, attain profitability, or commercialize our drug candidates if approved, as the statute includes provisions intended to reduce the cost of prescription drugs under Medicare. In addition to the direct impact of the IRA on federal drug reimbursement, the statute may also lead to similar reductions in payments from private payers. Various members of the current U.S. Congress have indicated that lowering drug prices continues to be a legislative and political priority, and some have introduced other proposals aimed at drug pricing. Similarly, at the state level, legislatures have increasingly passed legislation and implemented regulations designed to control pharmaceutical and biological product pricing, including price or patient reimbursement constraints, discounts, restrictions on certain product access and marketing cost disclosure and transparency measures, and, in some cases, designed to encourage importation from other countries and bulk purchasing.
Our principal executive office is located at 41 S Rio Grande Street, Salt Lake City, UT 84101. Our telephone number is (385) 269-0203.
Our annual reports on Form 10-K, quarterly reports on Form 10-Q, current reports on Form 8-K and all amendments to those reports filed or furnished pursuant to Section 13(a) or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, or the Exchange Act, are available free of charge on our website as soon as reasonably practicable after they are electronically filed with, or furnished to, the SEC. Our website is www.recursion.com. Investors and others should note that we announce material financial and other information to our investors using our investor relations website (https://ir.recursion.com/), SEC filings, press releases, public conference calls and webcasts. We use these channels as well as social media and blogs to communicate with our stakeholders and the public about our company, our services and other issues. It is possible that the information we post on social media and blogs could be deemed to be material information. Therefore, we encourage investors, the media and others interested in our company to review the information we post on the social media channels and blogs listed on our investor relations website. Information contained in, or that can be accessed through, our website is not a part of, and is not incorporated into, this report.
This report includes citations to information published by third parties, including academic and industry research, publications, surveys, and studies. While we believe that such information is reliable, we have not separately verified such information, and such information is not a part of, and is not incorporated into, this report.
Item 1A. Risk Factors.
You should carefully consider the risks and uncertainties described below, together with all of the other information contained in this Annual Report on Form 10-K and our other public filings with the SEC, before making investment decisions regarding our common stock. The risks described below are not the only risks we face. The occurrence of any of the following risks, or of additional risks and uncertainties not presently known to us or that we currently believe to be immaterial, could cause our business, prospects, operating results, and financial condition to be materially and adversely affected.
RISKS RELATED TO OUR LIMITED OPERATING HISTORY, FINANCIAL POSITION, AND NEED FOR ADDITIONAL CAPITAL
We are a clinical-stage biotechnology company with a limited operating history and no products approved by regulators for commercial sale, which may make it difficult to evaluate our current and future business prospects.
Since our inception in November 2013, we have focused substantially all of our efforts and financial resources on building our drug discovery platform and developing our initial drug candidates. All of our drug candidates are still in the discovery, preclinical development, or clinical stages. Before we can commercialize our drug candidates, they require, among other steps, clinical success; development of internal or external manufacturing capacity and marketing expertise; and regulatory approval by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and other applicable jurisdictions. We have no products approved for commercial sale and we can provide no assurance that we will obtain regulatory approvals to market and sell any drug products in the future. We therefore have never generated any revenue from drug product sales, and we do not expect to generate any revenue from drug product sales in the foreseeable future. Until we successfully develop and commercialize drug candidates, which may never occur, we expect to finance our operations through a combination of equity offerings, debt financings, and strategic collaborations or similar arrangements. Biopharmaceutical product development is a highly speculative undertaking and involves a substantial degree of risk. For these and other reasons discussed elsewhere in this Risk Factors section, it may be difficult to evaluate our current business and our future prospects.
We have incurred significant operating losses since our inception and anticipate that we will incur continued losses for the foreseeable future.
We have incurred net losses in each year since our inception. We had an accumulated deficit of $639.6 million as of December 31, 2022. Substantially all of our operating losses have resulted from costs incurred in connection with research and development efforts, including clinical studies, and from general and administrative costs associated with our operations. We expect our operating expenses to significantly increase as we continue to invest in research and development efforts and the commencement and continuation of clinical trials of our existing and future drug candidates. We also continue to incur additional costs associated with operating as a public company. As a result, we expect to continue to incur substantial and increasing operating losses for the foreseeable future. Our prior losses, combined with expected future losses, have had, and will continue to have, an adverse effect on our stockholders’ deficit and working capital. Because of the numerous risks and uncertainties associated with developing pharmaceutical products and new technologies, we are unable to predict the extent of any future losses or when we will become profitable, if at all. Even if we do become profitable, we may not be able to sustain or increase our profitability on a quarterly or annual basis.
We will need to raise substantial additional funding. If we are unable to raise capital when needed, we would be forced to delay, reduce, or eliminate at least some of our product development programs, business development plans, strategic investments, and potential commercialization efforts, and to possibly cease operations.
Our mission, to decode biology and deliver new drugs to the patients who need them, is broad, expensive to achieve, and will require substantial additional capital in the future. We have programs throughout the stages of development including clinical, preclinical, late discovery and early discovery. We expect our expenses to increase in connection with our ongoing activities as we continue the research and development of, initiate clinical trials of, and potentially seek marketing approval for, our current drug candidates, and as we add to our pipeline what we believe will be an accelerating number of additional programs. Preclinical and clinical testing is expensive and can take many years, so we will need supplemental funding to complete these undertakings. If our drug candidates are
eventually approved by regulators, we will require significant additional funding in order to launch and commercialize our products.
Our future capital requirements will depend on, and could increase significantly as a result of, many factors, including but not limited to the following:
•the number of drug candidates that we pursue and their development requirements;
•the scope, progress, results, and costs of our current and future preclinical and clinical trials;
•the costs, timing, and outcome of regulatory review of our drug candidates;
•if we obtain marketing approval for any current or future drug candidates, expenses related to product sales, marketing, manufacturing, and distribution;
•our ability to establish and maintain collaborations, licensing, and other strategic arrangements on favorable terms, and the success of such collaborations, licensing, and strategic arrangements;
•the impact of any business interruptions to our operations or to the operations of our manufacturers, suppliers, or other vendors, including the timing and enrollment of participants in our planned clinical trials, resulting from the COVID-19 pandemic, global supply chain issues or other force majeure events;
•the extent to which we acquire or invest in businesses, products, and technologies;
•the costs of preparing, filing, and prosecuting patent and other applications covering our intellectual property; maintaining, protecting, and enforcing our intellectual property rights; and defending intellectual property-related claims of third parties;
•our headcount growth and associated costs as we expand our business operations and our research and development activities, including into new geographies;
•the increase in salaries and wages and the extension of benefits required to retain, attract and motivate qualified personnel;
•the increases in costs of components necessary for our business;
•the costs of any commitments to become carbon neutral by 2030 and other environmental, social and governance goals;
•the costs of operating as a public company.
We historically have financed our operations primarily through private placements of our convertible preferred stock, through the net proceeds from our initial public offering completed on April 20, 2021, and through a private placement completed on October 24, 2022. We expect that our existing cash position and short-term investments as of the date of this Annual Report on Form 10-K will be sufficient to fund our operating expenses and capital expenditures for at least the next 12 months. However, identifying potential drug candidates and conducting preclinical development testing and clinical trials is a time-consuming, expensive, and uncertain process that takes years to complete, and we may never generate the necessary data or results required to obtain marketing approval and achieve product sales. In addition, our drug candidates, even if approved, may not achieve commercial success. We do not anticipate that our commercial revenues, if any, will be derived from sales of products for at least several years. Accordingly, we will need to continue to rely on additional financing to achieve our business objectives, and we may need to raise substantial additional funds sooner than expected.
Until such time, if ever, as we can generate substantial revenues, we expect to finance our cash needs potentially through a combination of private and public equity offerings and debt financings, as well as strategic collaborations, partnerships, and licensing arrangements. We do not have any committed external source of funds other than amounts payable by Takeda Pharmaceutical Company Limited (Takeda), by Bayer AG (Bayer) under and by Genentech, Inc. and F. Hoffmann-La Roche Ltd (together, Roche Genentech) collaboration agreements. Disruptions in the financial markets in general, due to the COVID-19 pandemic, U.S. debt ceiling and budget deficit concerns, and other geo-political issues such as the Ukraine/Russia conflict and political and trade uncertainties in the greater China region, may make equity and debt financing more difficult to obtain. We cannot be certain that future financing will be available in sufficient amounts or on terms acceptable to us, if at all. If we are unable to raise additional funds through equity or debt financings, or strategic collaborations or similar arrangements, on a timely basis and satisfactory terms, we may be required to significantly curtail, delay, or discontinue one or more of our research and development programs or the future commercialization of any drug candidate, or we may be unable to expand our operations or otherwise capitalize on our business opportunities as desired. Any of these circumstances could materially and adversely affect our business and results of operations and may cause us to cease operations.
Raising additional capital may cause dilution to our stockholders, restrict our operations, require us to relinquish rights to our technologies or drug candidates, and divert management’s attention from our core business.
The terms of any financing we obtain may adversely affect the holdings or rights of our stockholders, and the issuance of additional securities, whether equity or debt, or the possibility of such issuance, may cause the market price of our shares to decline. To the extent that we raise additional capital through the sale of Class A common stock or securities convertible or exchangeable into Class A common stock, our stockholders’ ownership interests will be diluted. For example, in October 2022, we issued 15,336,734 shares of our Class A common stock for gross proceeds of approximately $150 million. Moreover, as a condition to providing additional funds to us, future investors may demand, and may be granted, favorable terms that may include liquidation, preferences, dividend payments, voting rights or other preferences that materially and adversely affect the rights of common stockholders. Debt financing, if available, would result in increased fixed payment obligations. In addition, we may be required to agree to certain restrictive covenants, which could adversely impact our ability to make capital expenditures, declare dividends, or otherwise conduct our business. We also may need to raise funds through additional strategic collaborations, partnerships, or licensing arrangements with third parties at an earlier stage than would be desirable. Such arrangements could require us to relinquish rights to some of our technologies or drug candidates, future revenue streams, or research programs, or otherwise agree to terms unfavorable to us. Fundraising efforts have the potential to divert our management’s attention from our core business or create competing priorities, which may adversely affect our ability to develop and commercialize our drug candidates and technologies.
We are engaged in strategic collaborations and we intend to seek to establish additional collaborations, including for the clinical development or commercialization of our drug candidates. If we are unable to establish collaborations on commercially reasonable terms or at all, or if current and future collaborations are not successful, we may have to alter our development and commercialization plans.
Our product development programs and the potential commercialization of our drug candidates will require substantial additional cash to fund expenses. To date our operating revenue has primarily been generated through funded research and development agreements with Roche Genentech, Takeda, and Bayer. For example, in December 2021, we entered into a Collaboration and License Agreement with Roche Genentech (the Roche Genentech Agreement) for discovery of small molecule drug candidates with the potential to treat key areas of neuroscience and an oncology indication, and we received a non-refundable upfront payment of $150.0 million in January 2022. We intend to seek additional strategic collaborations, partnerships, and licensing arrangements with pharmaceutical and biotechnology companies. In the near term, the value of our company will depend in part on the number and quality of the collaborations and similar arrangements that we negotiate. Whether we reach a definitive agreement for a collaboration will depend, among other things, on our assessment of the collaborator’s resources and expertise, the terms and conditions of the proposed collaboration, and the potential collaborator’s evaluation of a number of factors. Those factors may include, among others, (i) our technologies and capabilities; (ii) our intellectual property position with respect to the subject drug candidate; (iii) the design or results of clinical trials; (iv) the likelihood of approval by the FDA and similar regulatory authorities outside the U.S.; (v) the potential market for the subject drug candidate; (vi) potential competing products; and (vii) industry and market conditions generally. In addition, the significant number of business combinations among large pharmaceutical companies has reduced the number of potential future collaborators with whom we can partner.
Collaborations and similar arrangements are complex and time-consuming to negotiate and document. We may have to relinquish valuable rights to our product candidates, intellectual property, or future revenue streams, or grant licenses on terms that are not favorable to us or in instances where it would have been more advantageous for us to retain sole development and commercialization rights. We may be restricted under collaboration agreements from entering into future agreements on certain terms with other potential collaborators. In addition, management of our relationships with collaborators requires (i) significant time and effort from our management team; (ii) coordination of our marketing and research and development programs with the marketing and research and development priorities of our collaborators; and (iii) effective allocation of our resources across multiple projects.
Collaborations and similar arrangements may never result in the successful development or commercialization of drug candidates or the generation of sales revenue. The success of these arrangements will depend heavily on the efforts and activities of our collaborators. Collaborators generally have significant discretion in determining the efforts and resources that they will apply to these collaborations, and they may not pursue or prioritize the
development and commercialization of partnered drug candidates in a manner that is in our best interests. Product revenues arising from collaborations are likely to be lower than if we directly marketed and sold products. Disagreements with collaborators regarding clinical development or commercialization matters can lead to delays in the development process or commercialization of the applicable drug candidate and, in some cases, the termination of the collaboration arrangement. These disagreements can be difficult to resolve if neither of the parties has final decision-making authority. Collaboration agreements are typically terminable by the collaborator, and any such termination or expiration would adversely affect us financially and could harm our business reputation. If we were to become involved in arbitration or litigation with any of our collaborators, it would consume time and divert management resources away from operations, damage our reputation, impact our ability to enter into future collaboration agreements, and may further result in substantial payments from us to our collaborators to settle those disputes.
We may not be able to establish additional strategic collaborations and similar arrangements on a timely basis, on acceptable terms, or at all, and to maintain and successfully conclude them. Collaborative relationships with third parties could cause us to expend significant resources and incur substantial business risk with no assurance of financial return. If we are unable to establish or maintain strategic collaborations and similar arrangements on terms favorable to us and realize the intended benefits of those partnering arrangements, our research and development efforts and potential to generate revenue may be limited and our business and operating results could be materially and adversely impacted.
We have no products approved for commercial sale and have not generated any revenue from product sales. We or our current and future collaborators may never successfully develop and commercialize our drug candidates, which would negatively affect our results of operation and our ability to continue our business operations.
Our ability to become profitable depends upon our ability to generate substantial revenue in an amount necessary to offset our expenses. As of December 31, 2022, we have not generated any revenue from our drug candidates or technologies, other than limited grant revenues, as well as payments under collaboration agreements, including the Roche Genentech Agreement. We expect to continue to derive most of our revenue in the near future from collaborations. We do not expect to generate significant revenue unless and until we progress our drug candidates through clinical trials and obtain marketing approval of, and begin to sell, one or more of our drug candidates, or we otherwise receive substantial licensing or other payments under our collaborations. Even if we obtain market approval for our drug candidates, one or more of them may not achieve commercial success.
Commercialization of our drug candidates depends on a number of factors, including but not limited to our ability to:
•successfully complete preclinical studies;
•obtain approval of Investigational New Drug (IND) applications by the FDA and similar regulatory approvals outside the U.S., allowing us to commence clinical trials;
•successfully enroll subjects in, and complete, clinical trials;
•receive regulatory approvals from applicable regulatory authorities;
•establish commercial manufacturing capabilities or make arrangements with third-party manufacturers for clinical supply and commercial manufacturing;
•obtain patent and trade secret protection or regulatory exclusivity for our drug candidates, and maintain, protect, defend, and enforce such intellectual property rights;
•launch commercial sales of our drug products, whether alone or in collaboration with other parties;
•obtain and maintain acceptance of our drug products by patients, the medical community, and third-party payors, and effectively compete with other therapies;
•obtain and maintain coverage of and adequate reimbursement for our drug products, if and when approved, by medical insurance providers; and
•demonstrate a continued acceptable safety profile of drug products following marketing approval.
If we do not achieve one or more of these factors in a timely manner or at all, we could experience significant delays or an inability to successfully commercialize our drug candidates, which would materially harm our business.
Our current or future collaborators would similarly need to be effective in the above activities as they pertain to the collaborators in order to successfully develop drug candidates. We and they may never succeed in
developing and commercializing drug candidates. And even if we do, we may never generate revenues that are significant enough to achieve profitability; or even if our collaborators do, we may not receive option fees, milestone payments, or royalties from them that are significant enough for us to achieve profitability. Even if we achieve profitability, we may not be able to sustain or increase profitability on a quarterly or annual basis. Our failure to become and remain profitable would eventually depress our value and could impair our ability to raise capital, expand our business, maintain our research and development efforts, develop a pipeline of drug candidates, enter into collaborations, or even continue our operations.
Our quarterly and annual operating results may fluctuate significantly due to a variety of factors and could fall below our expectations or the expectations of investors or securities analysts, which may cause our stock price to fluctuate or decline.
The amount of our future losses, and when we might achieve profitability, is uncertain, and our quarterly and annual operating results may fluctuate significantly for various reasons, including, but not limited to, the following:
•the timing of, and our levels of investment in, research and development activities relating to our drug candidates;
•the timing of, and status of staffing and enrollment for, clinical trials;
•the results of clinical trials for our drug candidates, including whether there are any unexpected health or safety concerns with our drug candidates and whether we receive marketing approval for them;
•commercialization of competing drug candidates or any other change in the competitive landscape of our industry, including consolidation among our competitors or partners;
•the timing and cost of manufacturing our drug candidates;
•additions and departures of key personnel;
•the level of demand for our drug candidates should they receive approval, which may vary significantly;
•changes in the regulatory environment or market or general economic conditions;
•the increase in salaries and wages and the extension of benefits required to retain, attract and motivate qualified personnel;
•the increases in costs of components necessary for our business; and
The occurrence of one or more of these or other factors could result in large fluctuations and unpredictability in our quarterly and annual operating results. As a result, comparing our operating results on a period-to-period basis may not be meaningful. This variability and unpredictability could also result in our failing to meet any forecasts we provide to the market, or the expectations of industry or financial analysts or investors, for any period. If one or more of these events occur, the price of our Class A common stock could decline substantially.
If we engage in future acquisitions or strategic partnerships, this may increase our capital requirements, dilute our stockholders’ equity, cause us to incur debt or assume contingent liabilities, and subject us to other risks.
We may engage in acquisitions and strategic partnerships in the future, including by licensing or acquiring complementary products, intellectual property rights, technologies, or businesses. Any acquisition or strategic partnership may entail numerous risks, including but not limited to the following:
•increased operating expenses and cash requirements;
•the assumption of indebtedness or contingent liabilities;
•the issuance of our equity securities, which would result in dilution to our stockholders’ equity;
•difficulties in assimilating operations, intellectual property, products, and drug candidates of an acquired company, and with integrating new personnel;
•the diversion of our management’s attention from our existing product programs and initiatives, even if we are unable to complete such proposed transaction;
•our ability to retain key employees and maintain key business relationships;
•uncertainties associated with the other party to such a transaction, including the prospects of that party and their existing products or drug candidates and ability to obtain regulatory approvals; and
•our inability to generate revenue from acquired intellectual property, technology, and/or products sufficient to meet our objectives or even to offset the associated transaction and maintenance costs.
In addition, if we undertake such a transaction, we may assume or incur debt obligations, incur a large one-time expense, or acquire intangible assets, which could result in significant future amortization expenses and adversely impact our results of operations.
Costs of components necessary for our business increasing more rapidly could reduce profitability.
The costs of components necessary for our business have risen significantly in recent years and will likely continue to increase given stringency of demands. Competition and fixed price contracts may limit our ability to maintain existing operating margins. Costs increasing more rapidly than market prices may increase our net losses and may have a material adverse impact on our business and results of operations.
RISKS RELATED TO THE DISCOVERY AND DEVELOPMENT OF DRUG CANDIDATES
Our approach to drug discovery is unique and may not lead to successful drug products for various reasons, including, but not limited to, challenges identifying mechanisms of action for our candidates.
We image cells and use cell morphology to understand how a diseased cell responds to drugs and if or when it appears normal. If studying the shape, structure, form, and size of cells does not prove to be an accurate way to better understand diseases or does not lead to the biological insights or viable drug candidates we anticipate, our drug discovery platform may not be useful or may not lead to successful drug products, or we may have to move to a new business model, any of which could have an adverse effect on our reputation and results of operations. If the mechanism of action of a drug candidate is unknown, it may be more difficult to choose the best lead to optimize from an efficacy standpoint and to avoid potential off-target side effects that could affect safety. Such uncertainty could make it more difficult to form partnerships with larger pharmaceutical companies, as the expenses involved in late-phase clinical trials increase the level of risk related to potential efficacy and/or safety concerns and may pose challenges to IND and/or New Drug Application (NDA) approval by the FDA or other regulatory agencies.
Our drug candidates are in preclinical or clinical development, which are lengthy and expensive processes with uncertain outcomes and the potential for substantial delays.
Our current drug candidates are in preclinical or clinical development. Before we can bring any drug candidate to market, we must, among other things, successfully complete preclinical studies, have the candidate manufactured to appropriate specifications, conduct extensive clinical trials to demonstrate safety and efficacy in humans, and obtain marketing approval from the FDA and other appropriate regulatory authorities, which we have not yet demonstrated our ability to do. Clinical testing is expensive, difficult to design and implement, can take many years to complete, and is uncertain as to outcome. A failure of a clinical trial can occur at any stage of testing. The outcome of preclinical development testing and early clinical trials may not be predictive of the success of later clinical trials, and interim results of a clinical trial do not necessarily predict final results. We may accelerate development from cell models in our drug discovery platform directly to patients without validating results through animal studies or validate results in animal studies at the same time as we conduct Phase 1 clinical trials. This approach could pose additional risks to our success if the effect of certain of our drug candidates on diseases has not been tested in animals prior to testing in humans.
We have several clinical-stage drug candidates focused on rare, monogenic diseases, and we anticipate filing IND applications with the FDA or other regulators for Phase 1 or Phase 2 studies, as applicable, for these drug candidates. We may not be able to file such INDs, or INDs for any other drug candidates, and begin such studies, on the timelines we expect, if at all, and any such delays could impact any additional product development timelines. Moreover, we cannot be sure that submission of an IND will result in the FDA or other regulators allowing further clinical trials to begin or that, once begun, issues will not arise that require us to suspend or terminate these trials. Commencing each of these clinical trials is subject to finalizing the trial design based on discussions with the FDA and other regulatory authorities. The requirements imposed by these regulatory authorities, or their governing statutes, could change at any time, which may result in stricter approval conditions than we currently expect and/or necessitate completion of additional or longer clinical trials. Successful completion of our clinical trials is a prerequisite to submitting NDAs to the FDA, as well as Marketing Authorization Applications (MAAs) to the European Medicines Agency (EMA) and the Medicines and Healthcare Products Regulatory Agency (MHRA) for each drug candidate and, consequently, to the ultimate approval and commercial marketing of each drug candidate. We do not know whether any of our future clinical trials will begin on time or be completed on schedule, if at all.
We may experience delays in completing our preclinical studies and initiating or completing clinical trials, or numerous unforeseen events during, or as a result of, any clinical trials, that could require us to incur additional costs or delay or prevent our ability to receive marketing approval or to commercialize our drug candidates, including but not limited to those related to one or more of the following:
•regulators, Institutional Review Boards (IRBs), or ethics committees may not authorize us or our investigators to commence a clinical trial or to conduct a clinical trial at prospective trial sites;
•we may have difficulty reaching, or fail to reach, agreement on acceptable terms with prospective trial sites and prospective Contract Research Organizations (CROs), the terms of which can be subject to extensive negotiation and may vary significantly among different CROs and trial sites;
•the number of participants required for clinical trials of our drug candidates may be larger than we anticipate, enrollment in these clinical trials may be slower than we anticipate, or participants may drop out of clinical trials or fail to return for post-treatment follow-up at a higher rate than we anticipate;
•we or our third-party contractors may fail to comply with regulatory requirements, fail to meet their contractual obligations to us in a timely manner or at all, deviate from the clinical trial protocol, or drop out of a trial, which may require that we add new clinical trial sites or investigators;
•the supply or quality of our drug candidates or the other materials necessary to conduct clinical trials of our drug candidates may be insufficient, delayed, or inadequate;
•the occurrence of delays in the manufacturing of our drug candidates;
•reports may arise from preclinical or clinical testing of other therapies that raise safety, efficacy, or other concerns about our drug candidates; and
•clinical trials may produce inconclusive or negative results about our drug candidates, including determinations that candidates have undesirable side effects or other unexpected characteristics, in which event, we may decide – or our investigators or regulators, IRBs, or ethics committees may require us — to suspend or terminate the trials.
From time to time as we move through the stages of development, we may publish interim top-line or preliminary data from our clinical trials. Interim data from clinical trials are subject to the risk that one or more of the clinical outcomes may materially change as enrollment of participants continues and more data become available. Preliminary or top-line data also remain subject to audit and verification procedures that may result in the final data being materially different from the preliminary data we previously published. As a result, interim and preliminary data should be viewed with caution until the final data are available. Adverse differences between preliminary or interim data and final data could significantly harm our business prospects.
Our product development costs will increase if we experience delays in testing or regulatory approvals. We do not know whether any of our future clinical trials will begin as planned, or whether any of our current or future clinical trials will need to be restructured or will be completed on schedule, if at all. If we decide or are required to suspend or terminate a clinical trial, we may elect to abandon product development for that program. Significant preclinical study or clinical trial delays, including but not limited to those caused by the COVID-19 pandemic, could also shorten any periods during which we may have the exclusive right to commercialize our drug candidates or could allow our competitors to bring products to market before we do and impair our ability to successfully commercialize our drug candidates. Any delays in or unfavorable outcomes from our preclinical or clinical development programs may significantly harm our business, operating results, and prospects.
If we experience delays or difficulties in the enrollment of patients in clinical trials, our receipt of necessary regulatory approvals could be delayed or prevented.
We may not be able to initiate, continue, and complete clinical trials for current or future drug candidates if we are unable to locate and timely enroll a sufficient number of eligible participants in these trials as required by the FDA or similar regulatory authorities outside the United States. The process of finding potential participants may prove more costly than currently expected and our ability to enroll eligible participants may be limited or may result in slower enrollment than we anticipate due to a number of factors, including but not limited to the following:
•the severity of the disease under investigation;
•the eligibility criteria for the clinical trial in question, such as requirements that participants have specific characteristics or diseases;
•the availability of an appropriate genomic screening test;
•the perceived risks and benefits of the drug candidate under study;
•difficulties in identifying, recruiting, and enrolling a sufficient number of participants to complete our clinical studies;
•our ability to recruit clinical trial investigators with the appropriate competencies and experience;
•the referral practices of physicians;
•whether competitors are conducting clinical trials for drug candidates that treat the same indications as ours, and the availability and efficacy of competing therapies;
•our ability to monitor participants adequately during and after the trial and to maintain participant informed consent and privacy;
•the proximity and availability of clinical trial sites for prospective participants;
•pandemics such as the COVID-19 pandemic, natural disasters, global political instability, warfare, or other external events that may limit the availability of participants, principal investigators, study staff, or clinical sites; and
•the risk that enrolled participants will not complete a clinical trial.
If individuals are unwilling to participate in or complete our studies for any reason, or we experience other difficulties with enrollment or participation, the timeline for recruiting participants, conducting studies, and obtaining regulatory approval of potential products may be delayed.
Our planned clinical trials, or those of our current and potential future collaborators, may not be successful or may reveal significant adverse events not seen in our preclinical or nonclinical studies, which may result in a safety profile that could inhibit regulatory approval or market acceptance of any of our drug candidates.
Before obtaining regulatory approvals for the commercial sale of any products, we must demonstrate through preclinical studies and clinical trials that our drug candidates are both safe and effective for use in each target indication. Failure can occur at any time during the clinical trial process. The results of preclinical studies and early clinical trials of our drug candidates may not be predictive of the results of later-stage clinical trials, and initial success in clinical trials may not be indicative of results that will be obtained when such trials are completed. An extremely high rate of drug candidates fail as they proceed through clinical trials. Drug candidates in later stages of clinical trials also may fail to show the desired safety and efficacy profile despite having progressed through nonclinical studies and initial clinical trials. A number of companies in the biopharmaceutical industry have suffered significant setbacks in advanced clinical trials due to lack of efficacy or unacceptable safety issues, notwithstanding promising results in earlier trials. Most drug candidates that commence clinical trials are never approved for marketing, and there can be no assurance that any of our current or future clinical trials will ultimately be successful or support further clinical development of any of our drug candidates.
As is the case with many treatments for rare diseases and other conditions, there have been, and it is likely that in the future there may be, side effects associated with the use of our drug candidates. If significant adverse events or other side effects are observed in any of our current or future drug candidates, we may have difficulty recruiting participants in our clinical trials, they may drop out of our trials, or we may be required to abandon the trials or our development efforts of one or more drug candidates altogether. Moreover, if we develop drug candidates in combination with one or more disease therapies, it may be more difficult to accurately predict side effects. We, the FDA, other applicable regulatory authorities, or an IRB may suspend or terminate clinical trials of a drug candidate at any time for various reasons, including a belief that subjects in such trials are being exposed to unacceptable health risks or adverse side effects. Some potential therapeutics developed in the biotechnology industry that initially showed therapeutic promise in early-stage trials were later found to cause side effects that prevented their further development. Even if the side effects do not preclude the product from obtaining or maintaining marketing approval, undesirable side effects may inhibit market acceptance of the approved product due to its tolerability versus other therapies. Any of these developments could materially harm our business, operating results, and prospects.
We conduct clinical trials for our drug candidates outside the United States, and the FDA and similar foreign regulatory authorities may not accept data from such trials.
We have started to conduct additional clinical trials outside the United States in the Netherlands and may in the future choose to conduct additional clinical trials outside the United States in locations that may include Australia, Europe, Asia, or other jurisdictions. FDA acceptance of trial data from clinical trials conducted outside the United
States requires that all of FDA’s clinical trial requirements be met. In addition, in cases where data from clinical trials conducted outside the United States are intended to serve as the sole basis for marketing approval in the United States, the FDA will generally not approve the application on the basis of foreign data alone unless (i) the data are applicable to the United States population and United States medical practice; (ii) the trials are performed by clinical investigators of recognized competence; and (iii) the data may be considered valid without the need for an on-site inspection by the FDA or, if the FDA considers such an inspection to be necessary, the FDA is able to validate the data through an on-site inspection or other appropriate means. Many foreign regulatory bodies have similar approval requirements, and such foreign trials would be subject to the applicable local laws of the foreign jurisdictions where the trials are conducted. There can be no assurance that the FDA or any similar foreign regulatory authority will accept data from trials conducted outside of the United States or the applicable jurisdiction. If the FDA or any similar foreign regulatory authority does not accept such data, it would result in the need for additional trials, which would be costly and time-consuming and delay aspects of our business plan, and which may result in our drug candidates not receiving approval or clearance for commercialization in the applicable jurisdiction.
Following the United Kingdom’s departure from the EU (referred to as Brexit) on January 31, 2020, and the end of the “transition period” on December 31, 2020, the EU and the United Kingdom entered into a trade and cooperation agreement that governs certain aspects of their future relationship, including the assurance of tariff-free trade for certain goods and services. As the regulatory framework for pharmaceutical products in the United Kingdom is derived from EU directives and regulations, Brexit will materially impact the future regulatory regime that applies to products and the approval of drug candidates in the United Kingdom. Longer term, the United Kingdom is likely to develop its own legislation that diverges from that in the EU, which may delay or preclude marketing approval for our drug candidates in one or both jurisdictions.
It is difficult to establish with precision the incidence and prevalence for target patient populations of our drug candidates. If the market opportunities for our drug candidates are smaller than we estimate, or if any approval that we obtain is based on a narrower definition of the patient population, our revenue and ability to achieve profitability will be adversely affected, possibly materially.
Even if approved for commercial sale, the total addressable market for our drug candidates will ultimately depend upon, among other things, (i) the indications and diagnostic criteria included in the final label; (ii) acceptance by the medical community; and (iii) patient access, product pricing, and reimbursement by third-party payors. The number of patients targeted by our drug candidates may turn out to be lower than expected, patients may not be amenable to treatment with our products, or new patients may become increasingly difficult to identify or access, all of which would adversely affect our results of operations and our business. Due to our limited resources and access to capital or for other reasons, we must prioritize development of certain drug candidates, which may prove to be the wrong choices and may adversely affect our business.
Although we intend to explore other therapeutic opportunities in addition to the drug candidates that we are currently developing, we may fail to identify viable new drug candidates for clinical development for a number of reasons.
Research programs to pursue the development of our existing and planned drug candidates for additional indications, and to identify new drug candidates and disease targets, require substantial technical, financial, and human resources whether or not they are ultimately successful. For example, under the Roche Genentech Agreement, we are collaborating with Roche Genentech to develop various projects related to the discovery of small molecule drug candidates with the potential to treat “key areas” of neuroscience and an oncology indication. There can be no assurance that we will find potential targets using this approach, that the conditions targeted will be tractable, or that clinical trials will be successful. Our research programs may initially show promise in identifying potential indications and/or drug candidates, yet fail to yield results for clinical development for a number of reasons, including but not limited to the following:
•the research methodology used may not be successful in identifying potential indications and/or drug candidates, including as a result of the limited patient sample represented in our databases and the validity of extrapolating based on insights from a particular cellular context that may not apply to other, more relevant cellular contexts;
•potential drug candidates may, after further study, be shown to have harmful side effects or other characteristics that indicate they are unlikely to be effective products; or
•it may take greater human and financial resources than we can allocate to identify additional therapeutic opportunities for our drug candidates or to develop suitable potential drug candidates through internal research programs, thereby limiting our ability to develop, diversify, and expand our product portfolio.
Because we have limited financial and human resources, we will have to prioritize and focus on certain research programs, drug candidates, and target indications while forgoing others. As a result, we may forgo or delay pursuit of opportunities with other drug candidates or for other indications that later prove to have greater commercial potential or a greater likelihood of success. Our resource allocation decisions may cause us to fail to capitalize on viable commercial products or profitable market opportunities.
Accordingly, there can be no assurance that we will ever be able to identify additional therapeutic opportunities for our drug candidates or to develop suitable potential drug candidates through internal research programs, which could materially adversely affect our future growth and prospects.
If we are unable to obtain, or if there are delays in obtaining, required regulatory approvals for our drug candidates in the U.S. or other jurisdictions, or if approval is subject to limitations, we will be unable to commercialize, or will be delayed or limited in commercializing, the drug candidates in such jurisdiction and our ability to generate revenue may be materially impaired.
Our drug candidates and the activities associated with their development and commercialization — including their design, testing, manufacture, safety, efficacy, recordkeeping, labeling, storage, approval, advertising, promotion, sale, distribution, import, and export — are subject to comprehensive regulation by the FDA and other regulatory agencies in the United States and by comparable authorities in other countries. Before we can commercialize any of our drug candidates, we must obtain marketing approval. As of December 31, 2022, all of our drug candidates are in development, and we have not received approval to market any of our drug candidates from regulatory authorities in any jurisdiction. It is possible that our current and future drug candidates will never obtain regulatory and marketing approval.
We have only limited experience in filing and supporting applications to regulatory authorities and expect to rely on CROs and/or regulatory consultants to assist us in this process. Securing regulatory approval requires the submission of extensive preclinical and clinical data and supporting information to the various regulatory authorities for each therapeutic indication to establish the drug candidate’s safety and efficacy. It also requires the submission of information about the product manufacturing process to, and inspection of manufacturing facilities by, the relevant regulatory authority. Given our novel approach to drug discovery that uses our platform to generate data, regulatory authorities may not approve any of our drug candidates derived from our platform. They may also elect to inspect our platform and facilities and manufacturing and research practices, which may uncover regulatory deficiencies that must be addressed and remedied before research or market authorizations may occur.
The process of obtaining regulatory approvals, both in the United States and abroad, is expensive and often takes many years. If the FDA or a comparable foreign regulatory authority requires that we perform additional preclinical or clinical trials, then approval may be delayed, if obtained at all. The FDA and comparable regulatory authorities in other countries have substantial discretion in the approval process and may refuse to accept any application, or they may decide that our data are insufficient for approval and require additional preclinical, clinical, or other studies. Our drug candidates could be delayed in receiving, or fail to receive, regulatory approval for many reasons, including but not limited to the following:
•the FDA or comparable foreign regulatory authorities may disagree with the design or implementation of our clinical trials;
•we may not be able to enroll a sufficient number of patients in our clinical studies;
•we may be unable to demonstrate to the satisfaction of the FDA or comparable foreign regulatory authorities that a drug candidate is safe and effective for its proposed indication or that a related companion diagnostic is suitable to identify appropriate patient populations;
•a drug candidate may be only moderately effective or may have undesirable or unintended side effects, toxicities, or other characteristics;
•the results of clinical trials may not meet the level of statistical significance required by the FDA or comparable foreign regulatory authorities for approval;
•we may be unable to demonstrate that a drug candidate’s clinical and other benefits outweigh its safety risks;
•the FDA or comparable foreign regulatory authorities may disagree with our interpretation of data from preclinical studies or clinical trials;
•the data collected from clinical trials of our drug candidates may not be sufficient or of sufficient quality to support the submission of an NDA or other submission or to obtain regulatory approval in the United States or elsewhere;
•the FDA or comparable foreign regulatory authorities may find deficiencies with, or fail to approve, our manufacturing processes or facilities, or those of third-party manufacturers with which we contract, for clinical and commercial supplies; and
•the approval policies or regulations of the FDA or comparable foreign regulatory authorities may significantly change such that our clinical or manufacturing data are insufficient for approval.
Even if we obtain approval, regulatory authorities may approve any of our drug candidates for fewer or more limited indications than we request, thereby narrowing the commercial potential of the drug candidate. In addition, regulatory authorities may grant approval contingent on the performance of costly post-marketing clinical trials or may approve a drug candidate with a label that does not include the labeling claims necessary or desirable for the successful commercialization of that drug candidate.
If we are unable to obtain, or experience delays in obtaining, approval of our current and future drug candidates in the U.S. or other jurisdictions, or if approval is subject to limitations, the commercial prospects for the drug candidates may be harmed, and our reputation and ability to generate revenues may be materially impaired.
We may never realize a return on our investment of resources and cash in our drug discovery collaborations.
We conduct drug discovery activities for or with collaborators who are also engaged in drug discovery and development, which include pre-commercial biotechnology companies and large pharmaceutical companies. Under these collaborations, we typically provide, among other resources, the benefit of our drug discovery platform and platform experts who identify molecules that have activity against one or more specified targets. In consideration, we have received, and expect to receive in the future, (i) equity investments; (ii) upfront fees; and/or (iii) the right to receive option fees, cash milestone payments upon the achievement of specified development, regulatory, or commercial sales milestones for the drug discovery targets, and potential royalties. Our ability to receive fees and payments and realize returns from our drug discovery collaborations in a timely manner, or at all, is subject to a number of risks, including but not limited to the following:
•our collaborators may incur unanticipated costs or experience delays in completing, or may be unable to complete, the development and commercialization of any drug candidates;
•collaborators have significant discretion in determining the amount and timing of efforts and resources that they will apply to our collaborations and may not perform their obligations as currently expected;
•collaborators may decide not to pursue development or commercialization of drug candidates for various reasons, including results of clinical trials or other studies, changes in the collaborator’s strategic focus or available funding, their desire to develop products that compete directly or indirectly with our drug candidates, or external factors (such as an acquisition or industry slowdown) that divert resources or create competing priorities;
•existing collaborators and potential future collaborators may begin to perceive us to be a competitor more generally, particularly as we advance our internal drug discovery programs, and therefore may be unwilling to continue existing collaborations, or enter into new collaborations, with us;
•a collaborator may fail to comply with applicable regulatory requirements regarding the development, manufacture, distribution, or marketing of a drug candidate or product;
•disagreements with collaborators, including disagreements over intellectual property or proprietary rights, contract interpretation, or the preferred course of development, might cause delays or terminations of the research, development, or commercialization of drug candidates, or might result in litigation or arbitration;
•collaborators may not properly obtain, maintain, enforce, defend, or protect our intellectual property or proprietary rights, or they may use our proprietary information in such a way as to potentially lead to disputes or legal proceedings that could jeopardize or invalidate our or their intellectual property or proprietary rights;
•collaborators may infringe, misappropriate, or otherwise violate the intellectual property or proprietary rights of third parties, which may expose us to litigation and potential liability; and
•drug discovery collaborations may be terminated prior to our receipt of any significant value.
In addition, we may be over-reliant on our partners to provide information for molecules that we in-license, or such molecules may no longer be well-protected because the composition of matter patents that once protected them become expired. Moreover, we may have difficulty obtaining the quality and quantity of active pharmaceutical ingredients (API) for use in drug candidates, or we may be unable to ensure the stability of the molecule, all of which is needed to conduct clinical trials or bring a drug candidate to market. For those molecules that we are attempting to repurpose for other indications, our collaboration partners may not have sufficient data, may have poor quality data, or may not be able to help us interpret data, any of which could cause our collaboration to fail.
If any drug discovery collaborations that we enter into do not result in the successful development and commercialization of drug products that result in option fees, milestone payments, royalties, or other payments to us as expected, we may not receive an adequate return on the resources we have invested in such collaborations, which would have an adverse effect on our business, results of operations and prospects. Further, we may not have access to, or may be restricted from disclosing, certain information regarding development and commercialization of our collaborators’ drug candidates and, consequently, may have limited ability to inform our stockholders about the status of, and likelihood of achieving, option fees, milestone payments or royalties under such collaborations.
We face substantial competition, which may result in others discovering, developing, or commercializing products before, or more successfully than, we do.
The development and commercialization of new products in the biopharmaceutical and related industries is highly competitive. There are other companies focusing on technology-enabled drug discovery to identify and develop new chemical entities (NCEs) that have not previously been investigated in clinical trials and/or known chemical entities (KCEs) that have been previously investigated. Some of these competitive companies are employing scientific approaches that are the same as or similar to our approach, and others are using entirely different approaches. These companies include large pharmaceutical companies, specialty pharmaceutical companies, and biotechnology companies of various sizes worldwide. Smaller or early-stage companies may also prove to be significant competitors, particularly through collaborative arrangements with large, established companies. Potential competitors also include academic institutions, government agencies, and other public and private research organizations. Many of the companies that we compete against, or which we may compete against in the future, have significantly greater financial resources and expertise in research and development, manufacturing, preclinical testing, conducting clinical trials, obtaining regulatory approvals, and marketing approval of products than we do. They may also compete with us in recruiting and retaining qualified scientific and management personnel, in establishing clinical trial sites and patient recruitment for clinical trials, as well as in acquiring technologies complementary to, or necessary for, developing our programs.
Within the field of technology-enabled drug discovery, we believe that our approach utilizing a combination of wet-lab biology to generate our proprietary dataset, and the in silico tools in our closed-loop system, sets us apart and affords us a competitive advantage in initiating and advancing drug development programs. We further believe that the principal competitive factors to our business include (i) the accuracy of our computations and predictions; (ii) the ability to integrate experimental and computational capabilities; (iii) the ability to successfully transition research programs into clinical development; (iv) the ability to raise capital; and (v) the scalability of our platform, pipeline, and business.
Any drug candidates that we successfully develop and commercialize will compete with currently-approved therapies, and new therapies that may become available in the future, from segments of the pharmaceutical, biotechnology, and other related industries. The key competitive factors affecting the success of all of our drug candidates, if approved, are likely to be (i) their efficacy, safety, convenience, and price; (ii) the level of non-generic and generic competition; and (iii) the availability and amount of reimbursement from government healthcare programs, commercial insurance plans, and other third-party payors. Our commercial opportunity could be reduced or eliminated if competing products are more effective, have fewer or less severe side effects, are more convenient, or are less expensive than products that we or our collaborators may develop, or if competitors obtain FDA or other regulatory approval more rapidly than us and are able to establish a strong market position before we or our collaborators are able to enter the market.
If our proprietary tools and technology and other competitive advantages do not remain in place and evolve appropriately as barriers to entry in the future, or if we and our collaboration partners are not otherwise able to effectively compete against existing and potential competitors, our business and results of operations may be materially and adversely affected.
Because we have multiple programs and drug candidates in our development pipeline and are pursuing a variety of target indications and treatment modalities, we may expend our limited resources to pursue a particular drug candidate and fail to capitalize on development opportunities or drug candidates that may be more profitable or for which there is a greater likelihood of success.
We currently focus on the development of drug candidates regardless of the treatment modality or the particular target indication. Because we have limited financial and personnel resources, we may forgo or delay pursuit of opportunities with potential target indications or drug candidates that later prove to have greater commercial potential than our current and planned development programs and drug candidates. Our resource allocation decisions may cause us to fail to capitalize on viable commercial products or profitable market opportunities. Our spending on current and future research and development programs and other future drug candidates for specific indications may not yield any future drug candidates that are commercially viable.
We and our collaborators may not achieve projected discovery and development milestones and other anticipated key events in the time frames that we or they announce, which could have an adverse impact on our business and could cause our stock price to decline.
From time to time we have made, and in the future are likely to make, public statements regarding the expected timing of certain milestones and key events, such as the commencement and completion of preclinical and clinical studies in our internal drug discovery programs as well as developments and milestones under our collaborations. Our collaborators, such as Roche Genentech, have also made public statements regarding expectations for the development of programs under collaborations with us and may in the future make additional statements about their goals and expectations for collaborations with us. The actual timing of these events can vary dramatically due to a number of factors, such as (i) delays or failures in our, or our current and future collaborators’, drug discovery and development programs; (ii) the amount of time, effort, and resources committed by us and our current and future collaborators; and (iii) the numerous uncertainties inherent in the development of drugs. As a result, there can be no assurance that our, or our current and future collaborators’, programs will advance or be completed in the time frames we or they announce or expect. If we or any collaborators fail to achieve one or more of these milestones or other key events as planned and announced, our business and reputation could be materially adversely affected.
RISKS RELATED TO OUR PLATFORM AND DATA
We have invested, and expect to continue to invest, in research and development efforts to further enhance our drug discovery platform, which is central to our mission. If the return on these investments is lower or develops more slowly than we expect, our business and operating results may suffer.
Our drug discovery platform is central to our mission to decode biology by integrating technological innovations across biology, chemistry, automation, data science, and engineering. The platform includes the Recursion Operating System, which combines an advanced infrastructure layer to generate proprietary biological and chemical datasets, and the Recursion Map, a suite of custom software, algorithms, and machine learning tools. Our platform depends upon the continuous, effective, and reliable operation of our software, hardware, databases, and related tools and functions, as well as the integrity of our data. Our ability to develop drug candidates and increase revenue depends in large part on our ability to enhance and improve our platform. The success of any enhancement to our platform depends on several factors, including (i) innovation in hardware solutions; (ii) increased computational storage and processing capacity; (iii) development of more advanced algorithms; and (iv) generation of additional biological and chemical data, such as that which is necessary to our ability to identify important and emerging use cases and quickly develop new and effective innovations to address those use cases.
We have invested, and expect to continue to invest, in research and development efforts that further enhance our platform. These investments may involve significant time, risks, and uncertainties, including the risks that any new software or hardware enhancement may not be introduced in a timely or cost-effective manner; may not keep pace with technological developments; or may not achieve the functionality necessary to generate significant revenues.
Our proprietary software tools, hardware, and data sets are inherently complex. We have from time to time found defects, vulnerabilities, or other errors in our software and hardware that produce the data sets we use to discover new drug candidates, and new errors with our software and hardware may be detected in the future. The risk of errors is particularly significant when new software or hardware is first introduced or when new versions or enhancements of existing software or hardware are implemented. Errors may also result from the interface of our proprietary software and hardware tools with our data or with third-party systems and data.
If we are unable to successfully enhance our drug discovery platform, or if there are any defects or disruptions in our platform that are not timely resolved, our ability to develop new innovations and ultimately gain market acceptance of our products and discoveries could be materially and adversely impacted, and our reputation, business, operating results and prospects could be materially harmed.
Our information technology systems and infrastructure may fail or experience security breaches and incidents that could adversely impact our business and operations and subject us to liability.
We have experienced significant growth in the complexity of our data and the software tools that our hardware infrastructure supports. We rely significantly upon information technology systems and infrastructure owned and maintained by us or by third party providers to generate, collect, store, and transmit confidential and proprietary information and data (including but not limited to intellectual property, proprietary business information, and personal information) and to operate our business. We also outsource elements of our operations to, and obtain products and services from, third parties and engage in collaborations for drug discovery with third parties, each of which has or could have access to our confidential or proprietary information.
We deploy and operate an array of technical and procedural controls to reduce the risks to our information technology systems, infrastructure and data and to work to maintain the availability, confidentiality and integrity of our data, and we expect to continue to incur significant costs on such detection and prevention efforts. Despite these measures, our information technology and other internal infrastructure systems face the risk of failures, interruptions, security breaches and incidents, or other harm from various causes or sources, and third parties with whom we share confidential or proprietary information face similar risks and may experience similar events that materially impact us. These causes or sources include but are not limited to the following:
•computer viruses and other malicious code;
•global political instability;
•telecommunication and electrical failures;
•inadvertent or intentional actions by our employees or third-party providers; and
•cyber-attacks by malicious third parties, including the deployment of ransomware and malware, denial-of-service attacks, social engineering, and other means to affect service reliability and threaten the confidentiality, integrity, and availability of information.
With respect to cyber-attacks, the techniques used by cyber criminals change frequently, may not be recognized until launched, and can originate from a wide variety of sources, including outside groups and individuals with a range of motives (including industrial espionage) and expertise, such as organized crime affiliates, terrorist organizations, or hostile foreign governments or agencies. These risks may be heightened in connection with the conflict between Russia and Ukraine. The costs to us to investigate and mitigate actual and suspected cybersecurity breaches and incidents could be significant. We may not be able to anticipate all types of security threats and implement preventive measures effective against all such threats. In addition, an increased amount of work is occurring remotely, including through the use of mobile devices. This could increase our cybersecurity risk, create data accessibility concerns, and make us more susceptible to communication disruptions.
We have experienced, and may continue to experience, cyber-attacks, security breaches and incidents, and other system failures, although to our knowledge we have not experienced any material interruption or incident as of December 31, 2022. The loss, corruption, unavailability of, or damage to our data would interfere with and undermine the insights we draw from our platform and could impair the integrity of our clinical trial data, leading to regulatory delays or the inability to get our drug candidates approved. If we do not accurately predict and identify our infrastructure requirements and failures and timely enhance our infrastructure, or if our remediation efforts are
not successful, it could result in a material disruption of our business operations and development programs, including the loss or unauthorized disclosure of our trade secrets, individuals’ personal information, or other proprietary or sensitive data. A security breach or incident that leads to unauthorized acquisition, disclosure, or other processing of our intellectual property or other proprietary information could also affect our intellectual property rights and enable competitors to compete with us more effectively. Likewise, as we rely on third parties for the manufacture of our drug candidates and to conduct clinical trials, similar events relating to their systems and operations could also have a material adverse effect on our business and lead to regulatory agency actions.
Moreover, any security breach or other event that leads to loss of, unauthorized access to, disclosure of, or other processing of personal information, including personal information regarding clinical trial subjects, contractors, directors, or employees, or the perception any of these has occurred, could harm our reputation, compel us to comply with federal and/or state notification laws and foreign law equivalents, subject us to mandatory corrective action, and otherwise subject us to liability under laws and regulations that protect the privacy and security of personal information. For more information see “Risk Factors— We are subject to U.S. and foreign laws regarding privacy, data protection, and data security that could entail substantial compliance costs, while the failure to comply could subject us to significant liability” set forth below.
Failures, disruptions, security breaches and incidents, cyber-attacks, and other harmful events impacting data processed or maintained in our business, or information technology systems or infrastructure used in our business, including those resulting in a loss of or damage to our information technology systems or infrastructure, or the loss of or inappropriate acquisition, disclosure, or other processing of confidential, proprietary, or personal information, or the perception any of these has occurred, could expose us to a risk of loss, enforcement measures, regulatory agency investigations, proceedings, and other actions, penalties, fines, indemnification claims, litigation, potential civil or criminal liability, collaborators’ loss of confidence, damage to our reputation, and other consequences, which could materially adversely affect our business and results of operations. While we maintain insurance coverage for certain expenses and liabilities related to failures or breaches of our information technology systems, it may not be adequate to cover all losses associated with such events. In addition, such insurance may not be available to us in the future on satisfactory terms or at all. Furthermore, if the information technology systems of third parties with whom we do business become subject to disruptions or security breaches, we may have insufficient recourse against them.
Interruptions in the availability of server systems or communications with internet or cloud-based services, or failure to maintain the security, confidentiality, accessibility, or integrity of data stored on such systems, could harm our business.
We rely on third-party data centers and telecommunications solutions, including cloud infrastructure services such as Google Cloud and Amazon Web Services, to host substantial portions of our technology platforms and to support our business operations. We have no control over these cloud-based service or other third-party providers, although we attempt to reduce risk by minimizing reliance on any single third party or its operations. We have experienced, and expect we may in the future again experience, system interruptions, outages, or delays due to a variety of factors, including infrastructure changes, human or software errors, website hosting disruptions, and capacity constraints. A prolonged service disruption affecting our cloud-based solutions could damage our reputation or otherwise materially harm our business.
Further, if the security measures of our third-party data center or cloud infrastructure providers are breached by cyber-attacks or other means and unauthorized access to our information technology systems or data occurs, it could result in interruptions to our operations and the loss of proprietary or confidential information, which could damage our reputation, cause us to incur substantial costs, divert our resources from other tasks, and subject us to significant legal and financial exposure and liabilities, any one of which could materially adversely affect our business, results of operations, and prospects. Such third-party providers may also be subject to natural disasters, global political instability, warfare, power losses, telecommunications failures, or other disruptive events that could negatively affect our business and require us to incur significant costs to secure alternate cloud-based solutions. In addition, any changes in our third-party providers’ service levels or features that we utilize or a termination of our agreements could also adversely affect our business.
Our solutions utilize third-party open source software (OSS), which presents risks that could adversely affect our business and subject us to possible litigation.
Our solutions include software that is licensed from third parties under open source licenses, and we expect to continue to incorporate such OSS in our solutions in the future. We cannot ensure that we have effectively monitored our use of OSS, validated the quality or source of such software, or are in compliance with the terms of the applicable open source licenses or our policies and procedures. Use of OSS may entail greater risks than use of third-party commercial software because open source licensors generally do not provide support, updates, or warranties or other contractual protections regarding infringement claims or the quality of the code. OSS may also be more susceptible to security vulnerabilities. Third-part